Dense, Strongly Coupled and Correlated Exciton Condensation

by Tommy on 11/01/2017

I’ve been reporting on exciton plasma physics for a while here.

Here is something that may directly apply to dark matter as well.

Condensation to a strongly correlated dark fluid of two dimensional dipolar excitons, Yotam Mazuz-Harpaz, Kobi Cohen and Ronen Rapaport (10 January 2017)

Recently we reported on the condensation of cold, electrostatically trapped dipolar excitons in GaAs bilayer heterostructure into a new, dense and dark collective phase. Here we analyze and discuss in detail the experimental findings and the emerging evident properties of this collective liquid-like phase. We show that the phase transition is characterized by a sharp increase of the number of non-emitting dipoles, by a clear contraction of the fluid spatial extent into the bottom of the parabolic-like trap, and by spectral narrowing. We extract the total density of the condensed phase which we find to be consistent with the expected density regime of a quantum liquid. We show that there are clear critical temperature and excitation power onsets for the phase transition and that as the power further increases above the critical power, the strong darkening is reduced down until no clear darkening is observed. At this point another transition appears which we interpret as a transition to a strongly repulsive yet correlated eh plasma. Based on the experimental findings, we suggest that the physical mechanism that may be responsible for the transition is a dynamical final-state stimulation of the dipolar excitons to their dark spin states, which have a long lifetime and thus support the observed sharp increase in density. Further experiments and modeling will hopefully be able to unambiguously identify the physical mechanism behind these recent observations.

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QCD and Electroweak Vacuum θ-Term Axion Angle Inheritance

by Tommy on 9/01/2017

This is exactly what I was looking for!

(In)dependence of Theta in the Higgs Regime without Axions, Mikhail Shifman and Arkady Vainshtein (2 January 2017)

We revisit the issue of the vacuum angle theta dependence in weakly coupled (Higgsed) Yang-Mills theories. Two most popular mechanisms for eliminating physical theta dependence are massless quarks and axions. Anselm and Johansen noted that the vacuum angle θ, associated with the electroweak SU(2) in the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model, is unobservable although all fermion fields obtain masses through Higgsing and there is no axion. We generalize this idea to a broad class of Higgsed Yang-Mills theories.

In the second part we consider consequences of Grand Unification. We start from a unifying group, e.g. SU(5), at a high ultraviolet scale and evolve the theory down within the Wilson procedure. If on the way to infrared the unifying group is broken down into a few factors, all factor groups inherit one and the same theta angle – that of the unifying group. We show that embedding the SM in SU(5) drastically changes the Anselm-Johansen conclusion: the electroweak vacuum angle θEW, equal to θQCD becomes in principle observable in ∆B = ∆L

See also:

Can Electro-Weak θ-Term be Observable?, A. A. Anselm and A. A.Johansen (14 May 1993)

We rederive and discuss the result of the previous paper that in the standard model θ-term related to W-boson field can not be induced by weak instantons. This follows from the existence of the fermion zero mode in the instanton field even when Yukawa couplings are switched on and there are no massless particles. We consider the new index theorem connecting the topological charge of the weak gauge field with the number of fermion zero modes of a certain differential operator which depends not only on gauge but also on Higgs fields. The possible generalizations of the standard model are discussed which lead to nonvanishing weak θ-term. In SU(2)L × SU(2)R model the θ dependence of the vacuum energy is computed.

Ok then! Off we go. I feel I am onto something now.

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Monoverse, Multiverse or Universe? Pick Any Two of Three.

by Tommy on 8/01/2017

So I finished up part one of the quantum cosmology essay, and then I ran across this meme.

I’m not sure who specifically thought that one up, but I can at least stop speculating for a while since I have now written down parts of the tangled web I have woven for myself since I simply tried to find a ZT=3 thermoelectric device a year or more ago now. In retrospect, I probably should have stuck with that. It was doing well even before the axion suddenly announced its dramatic appearance in my world of condensed matter physics. This is always serendipitous.

In the interim, I have solved the origin of life problem, which James Crutchfield promptly proved mathematically, then I went on to outline a new hypothesis for dark matter. And then I created an entire new branch of physics, quantum cosmology, from what I learned from my axion research experience. Now I am stuck with it. It needs to become mathematics. And even worse, before I can do that, I need to physically detect it, and then take a look at some of its physical properties.

Beyond its apparent effective particle mass.

I’m screwed. I’m totally screwed. I hate axions.

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

Remember to buy my book!

Tommy. The Legend.

In his own mind.

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Desperate MACHO WIMPs Plead For More Dark Matter Pork

by Tommy on 7/01/2017

I could see this coming light years away.

Dark Matter Overview, N. Fornengo, XXV ECRS 2016 Proceedings, eConf C16-09-04.3 (3 January 2017)

Identification of a solution to the dark matter problem has many arrows to its bow: if dark matter is a new elementary particle, both laboratory experiments and astrophysics can bring relevant and complementary pieces of information, that than can be confronted and composed to solve this intriguing puzzle. Although we currently do not have a unique and obvious target for the DM particle, we can rely on a broad range of ideas, tools and methods that make the investigation of dark matter a multi-frequency, multi-messenger and multi-techniques integrated endeavour.

We have BOTH kinds here, Dark Money AND Black Money.

Mo money, mo money, mo money!

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Dark Matter Gravitational Axions in Quantum Cosmology

by Tommy on 5/01/2017

Ok, so I had to whack pages of essay and brain storming after I recovered from the holidays.

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

So I looked it up and it turns out some other guy already invented it, a loop gravity guy.

But what about the Little Bounce Model. I still get that one, right?

A hypothesis was proposed for cosmic QCD axions as gravitational bosons within quantum gravity; physical gravitational analogues of Goldstone bosons coupled to artificial Higgs mode excitations as known in condensed matter physics systems; essentially low mass, low frequency and low temperature bosons of either a single species, a distribution of particle mass, or spectrum of particle mass coupling. The masses of the hypothetical dark matter particles are expected to be in the microwave region and therefore it’s possible the boson itself could be a mass mediator akin to a gravitational gauge boson.

Extending these concepts to spacetime and gravitation, and thus cosmic axions and the quantization of gravitational forces and fields, quantum gravity, involves introducing the concepts of geometry and topology from condensed matter physics analogue systems for reference, into quantum cosmology.

The purpose of this essay is to delve deeper into these new speculative quantum cosmologies based upon these concepts. Specifically I will discuss the novel concepts of axion fa field dependencies, and microwave axions as electromagnetic mass mediators within infrared and optical state transitions.

That’s puttin it out there, right? I don’t want to go full on crackpot.

It will be a while before this goes live.

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The Tully – Fisher Relation is NOT Evidence of Modified Gravity

by Tommy on 3/01/2017

Maybe finally we can get past this little diversion in astrophysics.

Dark Matter Strikes Back, Paolo Salucci (28 December 2016)

Mc Gaugh et al. (2016) have found, by investigating a large sample of Spirals, a tight non linear relationship between the total radial acceleration, connected with the Dark Matter phenomenon, and its component which comes from the distribution of baryonic matter, as the stellar and HI disks. The strong link between these two quantities is considered by them and by other researchers, as challenging the scenario featuring the presence of DM halos in galaxies. Or, at least, to indicate the peculiar nature of the underlying dark matter particles. We have explored this issue by investigating a larger number of galaxies by means of several techniques of analysis. Our results support and even increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the validity of McGaugh et al. (2016) ‘s relationship. However, we prove that such relationship exists also in the scenario featuring dark matter halos + ordinary baryonic matter and that it arises by the fact the DM is less concentrated than the luminous matter and it is progressively more abundant in lower luminosity objects. These properties are due to well known astrophysical effects: the implications of this relationship for the properties of dark matter halos are nothing of new or of unexpected. The relationship, definitively, is not a portal to go beyond the standard picture of ΛCDM galaxy formation.

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

The ‘tip of the iceberg’.

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Heavyish Gravitational Peccei Quinn Axions as Dark Matter

by Tommy on 2/01/2017

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

I had to drop all of the quantum cosmology and gravity onto the cutting room floor, since it is premature, not specific or germane to the discussion (the microwave detection of axions) and it was also very poorly written due to the holidays. I will get back to it later in the inevitable sequel.

Dark Matter Vixens from Venus.

Update: After finishing up editing my essay I ran across this little jewel.

Alternative dark matter candidates: Axions, Andreas Ringwald, Dontribution to the Proceedings of the Neutrino Oscillation Workshop, 4 – 11 September, 2016, Otranto, Lecce, Italy, DESY 16-236 (28 December 2016)

The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant greater than about 109 GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are “cold”, their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

I wrote my essay because I want more stuff like this essay.

So I added this and now it’s done!


Gravitatioal Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

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Pairing Forces in Quantum Dimer Bound States Studied

by Tommy on 29/12/2016

This result has helped me immensely, and it actually got some press already.

Effective forces between quantum bound states, Alexander Rokash, Evgeny Epelbaum, Hermann Krebs and Dean Lee (23 December 2016)

Recent ab initio lattice studies have found that the interactions between alpha particles (4He nuclei) are quite sensitive to the details of the nucleon-nucleon force. In order to understand the underlying physics, we study a simple model involving two-component fermions in one spatial dimension. We probe the interaction between two bound dimers for several different particle-particle interactions. We measure an effective potential between the dimers using external point potentials which act as numerical tweezers. We find that the strength and range of the local or nearly local part of the particle-particle interactions play a large role in shaping the interactions between the dimers and can even determine the overall sign of the effective potential.

See also:

Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition, Serdar Elhatisari, Ning Li, Alexander Rokash, Jose Manuel Alarcón, Dechuan Du, Nico Klein, Bing-nan Lu, Ulf-G. Meißner, Evgeny Epelbaum, Hermann Krebs, Timo A. Lähde, Dean Lee and Gautam Rupak, Phys. Rev. Lett., 117, 132501 (19 September 2016), doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.132501

How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. This insight should be useful in improving calculations of nuclear structure and important astrophysical reactions involving alpha capture on nuclei. Our findings also provide a tool to probe the structure of alpha cluster states such as the Hoyle state responsible for the production of carbon in red giant stars and point to a connection between nuclear states and the universal physics of bosons at large scattering length.

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Semi Definitive Sedimentary Nanodiamond Analysis Published

by Tommy on 24/12/2016

This is probably as good as it’s going to get for a while now.

Comprehensive analysis of nanodiamond evidence relating to the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis, Tyrone L. Daulton, Sachiko Amari, Andrew C. Scott, Mark Hardiman, Nicholas Pinter and R. Scott Anderson, Journal of Quaternary Science (19 December 2016), DOI:10.1002/jqs.2892

During the end of the last glacial period in the Northern Hemisphere near 12.9k cal a BP, deglacial warming of the Bølling–Ållerod interstadial ceased abruptly and the climate returned to glacial conditions for an interval of about 1300 years known as the Younger Dryas stadial. The Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis proposes that the onset of the Younger Dryas climate reversal, Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions and disappearance of the Clovis paleoindian lithic technology were coeval and caused by continent-wide catastrophic effects of impact/bolide events in North America. While there are no known impact structures dated to the Younger Dryas onset, physical evidence of the impact/bolide events is argued to be present in sediments spanning several continents at stratigraphic levels inferred to date to the Bølling-Ållerod/Younger Dryas boundary (YDB). Reports of nanometer to submicron-sized diamonds in YDB sediments, in particular the rare 2H hexagonal polytype of diamond, lonsdaleite, have been presented as strong evidence for shock processing of crustal materials. We review the available data on diamonds in sediments and provide new data. We find no evidence for lonsdaleite in YDB sediments and find no evidence of a spike in nanodiamond concentration at the YDB layer to support the impact hypothesis.

This is one failed hypothesis that has driven nanodiamond analysis forward remarkably.

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Dark Matter Axion Detection By Condensed Matter Excitation

by Tommy on 24/12/2016

I think it’s safe to say now that the race to detect the axion has finally and officially begun.

Stimulated Emission of Dark Matter Axion from Condensed Matter Excitations, Naoto Yokoi and Eiji Saitoh (16 December 2016)

We discuss a possible principle for detecting dark matter axions in galactic halos. If axions constitute a condensate in the Milky Way, stimulated emissions of the axions from a type of excitation in condensed matter can be detectable. We provide general mechanism for the dark matter emission, and, as a concrete example, an emission of dark matter axions from magnetic vortex strings in a type II superconductor are investigated along with possible experimental signatures.

Here is the big takeaway from this idea.

There is another interesting problem: The excitation of type C, such as an analogue of the axion in a topological magnetic insulator, has the same effective coupling as the axion coupling. Thus the mixing between the dark matter axions and condensed matter axions can occur in principle. Physical consequences from such a mixing will be discussed in a future work.

That should be a whole lotta fun.

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Enlightening My Cosmic Dark Matter Universe – In a Nutshell

by Tommy on 24/12/2016

This was a whole lotta fun. Mandatory reading for everyone.

Enlightening the dark universe, Abhik Kumar Sanyal, Lecture given on “One day seminar on Einstein and his contributions in Physics and Cosmology to celebrate 100 years of General Theory of Relativity” organized by the Calcutta Institute of Theoretical Physics in collaboration with Department of Mathematics, St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata, on 28th. March, 2015, Indian Journal of Theoretical Physics, Vol 62, Nos. 3,4, 2014. (20 December 2016)

Lot of avenues, the black hole, the wormhole, the dark matter, the dark energy etc. have been opened since the advent of General Theory of Relativity in 1915. Cosmology, the physics of creation and evolution of the universe, which was once thought to be beyond human perseverance, has now become a rich science of highest importance. However, the theory of gravitation, the oldest known interaction, is still not well understood. In the process of unveiling the evolutionary history of the universe, we shall explore some facts that suggest General Theory of Relativity is not the complete theory of gravitation.

Finally all of the threads of the gravitational unknowns have been organized into a single paper.

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Axion Induced Baryogenesis and Baryon Asymmetry Proposed

by Tommy on 20/12/2016

Here is one that is dear to my heart. It’s a start, I guess.

At least some of this is not being taken seriously, though.

Geometric Baryogenesis from Shift Symmetry, Andrea De Simone, Takeshi Kobayashi and Stefano Liberati, SISSA 64/2016/FISI (14 December 2016)

We present a new scenario for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe that is induced by a Nambu-Goldstone (NG) boson. The shift symmetry naturally controls the operators in the theory, while allowing the NG boson to couple to the spacetime geometry. The cosmological background thus sources a coherent motion of the NG boson, which leads to baryogenesis. Good candidates of the baryon-generating NG boson are the QCD axion and axion-like fields. In these cases the axion induces baryogenesis in the early universe, and can also serve as dark matter in the late universe.

Some very prestigious popular science journalists assured me that the axion doesn’t exist.

Some crackpots and cranks agreed, and so that’s the end of that.

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On the Electrodynamics of Chiral Matter

by Tommy on 20/12/2016

And finally, I leave you with this.

On electrodynamics of chiral matter, Zebin Qiu, Gaoqing Cao and Xu-Guang Huang (9 December 2016)

Many-body systems with chiral fermions can exhibit novel transport phenomena that violate parity and time reversal symmetries, such as the chiral magnetic effect, the anomalous Hall effect, and the anomalous generation of charge. Based on the Maxwell-Chern-Simons electrodynamics, we examine some electromagnetic and optical properties of such systems including the electrostatics, the magnetostatics, the propagation of electromagnetic waves, the novel optical effects, etc.

Regurgitated nearly verbatim, since I’m in a hurry and it’s breakthroughy and reviewyish.

So Happy Chirstmas! Remember, Satan is your friend. Santa, your enemy.

And semi-annual regional hemispherical cooling just … is.

Some astronomers assured me it will pass.

Only to arrive again next year.

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3D Quantum Phases of Majorana and Weyl Fermions Analyzed

by Tommy on 20/12/2016

I’ve been trying to come to grips with these exotic fermionic phases of matter for a while now.

Quantum phases of disordered three-dimensional Majorana-Weyl fermions, Justin H. Wilson, J. H. Pixley, Pallab Goswami and S. Das Sarma (16 December 2016)

The gapless Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) quasiparticles of a clean three dimensional spinless px+ipy superconductor provide an intriguing example of a thermal Hall semimetal (ThSM) phase of Majorana-Weyl fermions in class D of the Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry classification; such a phase can support a large anomalous thermal Hall conductivity and protected surface Majorana-Fermi arcs at zero energy. We study the effect of quenched disorder on such a topological phase with both numerical and analytical methods. Using the kernel polynomial method, we compute the average and typical density of states for the BdG quasiparticles; based on this, we construct the disordered phase diagram. We show for infinitesimal disorder, the ThSM is converted into a diffusive thermal Hall metal (ThDM) due to rare statistical fluctuations. Consequently, the phase diagram of the disordered model only consists of ThDM and thermal insulating phases. Nonetheless, there is a cross-over at finite energies from a ThSM regime to a ThDM regime, and we establish the scaling properties of the avoided quantum critical point which marks this cross-over. Additionally, we show the existence of two types of thermal insulators: (i) a trivial thermal band insulator (ThBI) [or BEC phase] supporting only exponentially localized Lifshitz states (at low energy), and (ii) a thermal Anderson insulator (AI) at large disorder strengths. We determine the nature of the two distinct localization transitions between these two types of insulators and ThDM.We also discuss the experimental relevance of our results for three dimensional, time reversal symmetry breaking, triplet superconducting states.

Every little bit helps. I wish I had more time for this kind of thing, though.

A ‘readers’ stipend would be nice.

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Our Condensed Universe is in Balanced Thermal Equilibrium

by Tommy on 20/12/2016

As I predicted. I missed this on the ArXiv but caught it on Scholar.

Thermal Gravitational Radiation and Condensed Universe, Ti-Pei Li and Mei Wu (7 December 2016)

The perfect Planck spectrum of the observed cosmic microwave background radiation indicates that our universe must be in thermal equilibrium. The dark sector of the universe should also be in the same equilibrium state with dark matter and dark energy coupled to each other and emits gravitational phonon blackbody radiation which is the main component of the cosmic background radiation. In the radiation-dominated era such gravitational radiation should be the majority species of the cosmic medium. Instead of the ideal fluid assumed by the standard cosmological model LCDM, the universe has to be taken as a thermodynamic system consisting of gravitationally connected dark energy and matter. Besides particle dynamics, statistical thermodynamics is also necessary for understanding the cosmological constitution and evolution history. As an alternative to LCDM we constructed a dark-energy-matter-coupled (DEMC) cosmological model. Based on the relativistic mass-energy relation, conservation law of energy, Lagrange’s equation with variable potential function, mean-field theory of continuous phase transition, and the symmetry principle of the kinetic coefficients, we deduced dynamic equations of the expansion of a DEMC universe with three parameters. These equations reproduce the observed history of the rate of expansion of our universe.

I agree with them on this, but I haven’t totally worked through their math yet.

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Collective Excitation of Strongly Coupled Quantum Fluids

by Tommy on 20/12/2016

This is a real winner for me as well.

Higher derivative corrections to incoherent metallic transport in holography, Matteo Baggioli, Blaise Goutéraux, Elias Kiritsis and Wei-Jia Li, CCTP-2016-20, CCQCN-2016-179, NORDITA-2016-129, SU-ITP-1621 (16 December 2016)

Transport in strongly-disordered, metallic systems is governed by diffusive processes. Based on quantum mechanics, it has been conjectured that these diffusivities obey a lower bound D/v2 ≳ ℏ/kBT, the saturation of which provides a mechanism for the T-linear resistivity of bad metals. This bound features a characteristic velocity v, which was later argued to be the butterfly velocity vB, based on holographic models of transport. This establishes a link between incoherent metallic transport, quantum chaos and Planckian timescales. Here we study higher derivative corrections to an effective holographic action of homogeneous disorder. The higher derivative terms involve only the charge and translation symmetry breaking sector. We show that they have a strong impact on the bound on charge diffusion Dc/v2B ≳ ℏ/kBT, by potentially making the coefficient of its right-hand side arbitrarily small. On the other hand, the bound on energy diffusion is not affected.

This is cosmological model building at its best, applicable to a wide variety of other fields.

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High Density of Grain Boundaries for Extremely High ZT Efficiency

by Tommy on 20/12/2016

This is promising. And interesting.

New record of high ZT found in hybrid transition-metal-dichalcogenides, Yulou Ouyang, Yuee Xie, Zhongwei Zhang, Qing Peng and Yuanping Chen, Journal of Applied Physics 120, 2016 (16 December 2016)

The search for thermoelectrics with higher figures of merit (ZT) will never stop due to the demand of heat harvesting. Single layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD), namely MX2 (where M is a transition metal and X is a chalcogen) that have electronic band gaps are among the new materials that have been the focus of such research. Here, we investigate the thermoelectric transport properties of hybrid armchair-edged TMDs nanoribbons, by using the nonequilibrium Green’s function technique combined with the first principles and molecular dynamics methods. We find a ZT as high as 7.4 in hybrid MoS2/MoSe2 nanoribbons at 800K, creating a new record for ZT. Moreover, the hybrid interfaces by substituting X atoms are more efficient than those by substituting M atoms to tune the ZT. The origin of such a high ZT of hybrid nanoribbons is the high density of the grain boundaries: the hybrid interfaces decrease thermal conductance drastically without a large penalty to electronic conductance.

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My Special and General Theory of the Cosmic QCD Axions

by Tommy on 17/12/2016

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

This has been a year and a couple of months coming. As usual the alert and attentive get to observe the development of the essay in real time. IT’S NOT DONE YET!!! This is just how I go about publishing crackpot science. I just can’t take anymore Verlinde and Wolchover, and Pavel is driving me nuts. So this is your big chance if you missed me writing all of those other idiotic crackpot essays in real time. It’s now live, and on the internet. I discovered the freakin axion.

Dark matter. Get it? The bosonic stuff of crackpots and crank magnets.

The quantum gravitational field theory will have to come later.

I was told when I have something to say I should say it.

I already said it. Now I’m writing it up.

© 2016 Thomas Lee Elifritz

Officially. For Publication.


A hypothesis is developed for cosmic QCD axions, as gravitationally and gravitoelectromagnetically active topological spacetime remnants, derived from inflational scale cosmogenesis events and existing as a quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a ground state bosonic superfluid, interacting directly with the baryons. The guiding principle is axion Higgs electrodynamics in condensed matter physics systems, and the hypothetical axion behavior is justified through both observational and experimental methods.

Special Theory of Cosmic Axions
Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

General Theory of Cosmic QCD Axions
Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Gravity Gauge Field Theory

Supersymmetry is Dead

Peccei Quinn Axions Exist

QCD Axion Constant is Large

Axion Mass ~ CMB Temperature

Axions in Thermal Equilibrium with CMB

Axion Superfluid Ground State ≤ Superfluid Tc 4He

Axions Interact Gravitoelectromagnetically

Axions as Inflation Scale Remnants

Axions as Topological Remnants

Axions Interact Gravitationally

Quantum Cosmogenesis

Spacetime Pseudogap

Axion Excitation

Update 1: Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

Update 2: © 2017 Thomas Lee Elifritz

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Dark Matter Interactions in Spiral Dwarf Galaxies Analyzed

by Tommy on 15/12/2016

I win. Again. I suppose I had better get going on my gravitational axion essay now.

The universal rotation curve of dwarf disk galaxies, E.V. Karukes and P. Salucci, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, MNRAS, 464, 3, January 21, 2017 (29 November 2016), DOI:10.1093/mnras/stw3055

We use the concept of the spiral rotation curves universality (see Persic et al. 1996) to investigate the luminous and dark matter properties of the dwarf disk galaxies in the local volume (size ∼11 Mpc). Our sample includes 36 objects with rotation curves carefully selected from the literature. We find that, despite the large variations of our sample in luminosities (∼ 2 of dex), the rotation curves in specifically normalized units, look all alike and lead to the lower-mass version of the universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies found in Persic et al. (1996). We mass model the double normalized universal rotation curve V(R/Ropt)/Vopt of dwarf disk galaxies: the results show that these systems are totally dominated by dark matter whose density shows a core size between 2 and 3 stellar disk scale lengths. Similar to galaxies of different Hubble types and luminosities, the core radius r0 and the central density ρ0 of the dark matter halo of these objects are related by ρ0r0 ∼ 100 Mpc−2. The structural properties of the dark and luminous matter emerge very well correlated. In addition, to describe these relations, we need to introduce a new parameter, measuring the compactness of light distribution of a (dwarf) disk galaxy. These structural properties also indicate that there is no evidence of abrupt decline at the faint end of the baryonic to halo mass relation. Finally, we find that the distributions of the stellar disk and its dark matter halo are closely related.

‘The tip of the iceberg’. Welcome to my post-big-bang world of condensed matter physics.

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Engine Clustering Comes to Tiny Rockets and Tiny Nations

by Tommy on 14/12/2016

New Zealand Gits Er Done.

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Lonsdaleite Produced By Static Low Temperature Shear Strain

by Tommy on 13/12/2016

Lonsdaleite finally establishes itself as being real.

Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon, Thomas. B. Shiell, Dougal G. McCulloch, Jodie E. Bradby, Bianca Haberl, Reinhard Boehler and David. R. McKenzie, Nature, Scientific Reports 6, 37232 (29 November 2016), doi:10.1038/srep37232

Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to significant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defined material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100 GPa and 400 °C. The nanocrystalline material was recovered at ambient and analysed using diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic flow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by “locking in” favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by first principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts.

And it no longer requires high temperatures, shock compression or meteorite impacts to form or manufacture. That’s a whole lotta wrenches is somebody’s gear. You know that’s gonna hurt.

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Monday Night (the Tuesday Release) on the

by Tommy on 13/12/2016

At last count there are at least seven or more incredible breakthroughs in the Arxiv tonight.

So I guess it’s game over for the big bang.

Welcome to the post-big-bang era.

It’s quantum cosmogenesis.

You heard it here first.

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The PhD Thesis of Marija Kekić of the Universitat De Valencia

by Tommy on 13/12/2016

Here is yet another wonderful new PhD thesis for you to read.

Phenomenology of low-scale Seesaw Models, Marija Kekić, PhD Thesis, Universitat de Valencia, Pilar Hernández Gamazo, Director (9 November 2016)

All the observed particles are well accommodated in the Standard Model, together with the basic forces. However, there are both experimental and theoretical hints that the Standard Model can not be a complete theory and that New Physics is needed. Some of the theoretical problems are: i) The flavor-puzzle, i.e., why are there three copies of particles differing only by their mass. Most of the free parameters in the Standard Model are linked to this puzzle. They have been measured, but their values do not follow any clear pattern and their origin remains elusive. ii) The strong CP problem, that is, why the CP symmetry is conserved in the strong interactions in the Standard Model, which is not ensured by any gauge symmetry. iii) How to combine quantum mechanics with general relativity, since the attempts to do this lead to non-renormalizable theories. Furthermore, gravity …

I can’t wait until I have the time to read it carefully and understand it.

The standard model in a nutshell seems particularly promising.

I have my very own theory of the cosmic nutshell.

Built upon the consensus nutshell.

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The Eric Verlinde Emergent Gravity Wild Goose Chase Begins

by Tommy on 13/12/2016

I wonder how much money they are going to waste on this hunt for WIMPs and MACHOs.

First test of Verlinde’s theory of Emergent Gravity using Weak Gravitational Lensing measurements, Margot M. Brouwer, et al., MNRAS (11 December 2016), doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3192

Verlinde (2016) proposed that the observed excess gravity in galaxies and clusters is the consequence of Emergent Gravity (EG). In this theory the standard gravitational laws are modified on galactic and larger scales due to the displacement of dark energy by baryonic matter. EG gives an estimate of the excess gravity (described as an apparent dark matter density) in terms of the baryonic mass distribution and the Hubble parameter. In this work we present the first test of EG using weak gravitational lensing, within the regime of validity of the current model. Although there is no direct description of lensing and cosmology in EG yet, we can make a reasonable estimate of the expected lensing signal of low redshift galaxies by assuming a background ΛCDM cosmology. We measure the (apparent) average surface mass density profiles of 33,613 isolated central galaxies, and compare them to those predicted by EG based on the galaxies’ baryonic masses. To this end we employ the ∼180 deg2 overlap of the Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS) with the spectroscopic Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. We find that the prediction from EG, despite requiring no free parameters, is in good agreement with the observed galaxy-galaxy lensing profiles in four different stellar mass bins. Although this performance is remarkable, this study is only a first step. Further advancements on both the theoretical framework and observational tests of EG are needed before it can be considered a fully developed and solidly tested theory.

This is gonna be so much fun. I can’t wait to be totally wrong again.

Being totally wrong can be so right, if done properly.

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Quantum Arithmetic Disproves Cosmic Naturalness Paradigm

by Tommy on 12/12/2016

Hat tip to Sabine Hossenfelder for this. She is going to destroy them in Munich.

I hope the brawl doesn’t fall out into the Munich streets and only ends up in a Bavarian beer hall.

Reasoning in Physics

International Workshop under the direction of Ben Eva, Ph.D., and Prof. Dr. Stephan Hartmann (CAS Senior Researcher in Residence)

Program and Abstracts Download

Reasoning in Physics – International Workshop at the Center for Advanced Studies, LMU Munich

Modern Physics provides an extremely rich testing ground for philosophical theories of scientific reasoning. In recent times, we have seen the emergence of many new forms of theory confirmation (analogue simulation, the no-alternatives argument, anthropic reasoning, …), necessitated by the empirical inaccessibility of some of the most prominent theories of modern physics and cosmology (string theory, cosmic inflation, …). This workshop will bring together researchers working on the epistemological problems posed by contemporary physical theory, in order to better understand some of these new patterns of physical reasoning and their relationship to traditional theories of scientific reasoning and argumentation in general (e.g. Bayesianism). Another key theme of the workshop will be to explore the ability of traditional Bayesian confirmation theory to account for the wide range of argumentative patterns used by physicists. Relevant issues include, for example, the role and epistemological status of toy models in physics, the ability of Bayesianism to distinguish between neutral and disconfirming evidence, the possibility of providing a Bayesian account of anthropic probabilities, and the question of how strongly a theory can be confirmed in the absence of direct empirical evidence.

Woo and wooism is officially an established branch of physics now, I guess.

I can save Sabine a lot of time with this, though. Naturalness is posited that all of physics should be renormalizable to something expressible in quantum units of order unity. Well, they’re right.

It is. They’re called fundamental particles and the elements. You know them well, I presume, it’s called ‘chemistry’. In my world, I call it quantum chemistry, and underlying all that is something called arithmetic and the fundamental axioms of set theory. You see, I got the Bourbaki math in my first grade education. By the fifth grade I had seen it all. Cantor, Newton and Hilbert, et al.

So what’s the deal with these really big numbers and really small numerical values?

How could this be? Who ordered that?

Well unfortunately, in my nutshell universe there is this fundamental finite speed limit called the speed of light, denoted by the symbol c, and a fundamental unit of action commonly denoted by Planck’s constant called h. And when doing the math it’s convenient to renormalize these values to unity, h/2π = ħ = c = 1, which greatly simplifies the mathematical notation and the resulting equations. And that involves things like the numerical value of π, which being a transcendental value, requires an infinite (endless) number of numerical digits to express exactly. This kind of renormalization to unity procedure can be applied to any number of a wide variety of physical units and constants with very great success. They’re called natural units.

So problem solved! But there is another problem in my nutshell universe. The speed of light in the microscopic world is extremely fast, but in the cosmic astronomical universe it is extremely slow, so slow that a vast portion of my nutshell is now unobservable after 13.8 billion years. And get this, that speed, the speed of light, can never be attained by any macroscopic assemblage of atoms, no matter how much energy is applied, as demonstrated by both the special and general theories of relativity. You remember that guy, right? Albert Einstein? And Max Planck?

And even worse for my nutshell universe, entropy is continually created along with disorder and order in the nutshell. The integer value for that entropy just keeps getting larger and larger as the universe continues to self order and then decay into chaos as the rest of the cosmos continues to expand away from me, at speeds approaching, but never reaching, the finite speed of light.

That is, 1/n → 0 as n → ∞ and 0 ≠ 1 ≠ ∞. QED. Just be sure to trap out any division by zero.

When dealing with finite attractive forces, sooner or later something is gonna break.

Damn. I hate arithmetic already. And nature and physics sucks.

I wish Al Gore never invented the axion angle.

I’m going to become a philosopher.

The money is good, I hear.

Update: Now let’s all give a big hand for the whole, positive, real, exact integer, number 137.

Welcome back into my math cult.

Update 2: Try setting 0 = 1 and then build a mathematical framework around that relation. I tried that once, and it was moderately insightful. Or alternatively, toss out the zero, and then proceed.

That works in a fashion as well.

Update 3: Until it breaks.

Like in Star Trek.

Update 4: It’s like landing exactly on the pole in the 3D Graphics Orbital Space Flight Simulator.

There is a singularity in the math program.

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A Bulk Boundary Entanglement Entropy Information Hamiltonian

by Tommy on 12/12/2016

The John Templeton Foundation is gonna love this one.

Edge–Entanglement correspondence for gapped topological phases with symmetry, Maciej Koch-Janusz, Kusum Dhochak and Erez Berg (8 December 2016)

The correspondence between the edge theory and the entanglement spectrum is firmly established for the chiral topological phases. We study gapped, topologically ordered, non-chiral states with a conserved U(1) charge and show that the entanglement Hamiltonian contains not only the information about topologically distinct edges such phases may admit, but also which of them will be realized in the presence of symmetry breaking/conserving perturbations. We introduce an exactly solvable, charge conserving lattice model of a Z2 spin liquid and derive its edge theory and the entanglement Hamiltonian, also in the presence of perturbations. We construct a field theory of the edge and study its RG flow. We show the precise extent of the correspondence between the information contained in the entanglement Hamiltonian and the edge theory.

Fuzzy black hole horizon firewall here I come.

Go towards the light!

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Another Classification of Topological Crystalline Insulators

by Tommy on 12/12/2016

Here we go again.

Topological classification of crystalline insulators through band structure combinatorics, Jorrit Kruthoff, Jan de Boer, Jasper van Wezel, Charles L. Kane and Robert-Jan Slager (6 December 2016)

We present a method for efficiently enumerating all allowed, topologically distinct, electronic band structures within a given crystal structure. The algorithm applies to crystals with broken time-reversal, particle-hole, and chiral symmetries in any dimension. The presented results match the mathematical structure underlying the topological classification of these crystals in terms of K-theory, and therefore elucidate this abstract mathematical framework from a simple combinatorial perspective. Using a straightforward counting procedure, we classify the allowed topological phases in any possible two-dimensional crystal in class A. We also show how the same procedure can be used to classify the allowed phases for any three-dimensional space group. Employing these classifications, we study transitions between topological phases within class A that are driven by band inversions at high symmetry points in the first Brillouin zone. This enables us to list all possible types of phase transitions within a given crystal structure, and identify whether or not they give rise to intermediate Weyl semimetallic phases.

So much math, so little stuff.

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NORDITA Stockholm University Dark Matter Axion Conference

by Tommy on 9/12/2016

Frank Wilczek hosts first workshop on axions as professor at Stockholm University

Axion Dark Matter Workshop Conference – NORDITA – Stockholm University

Axion Dark Matter Workshop Conference Timetable

Today is the discussion day.

It should be over now.

All hail the probe.

Update: There is a reason they are doing this in Stockholm on the eve of the Nobel Prize ceremony. Hopefully Vera Rubin will make it through the year. Rubin, Quinn and Peccei.

For chemistry … be prepared for the greatest cosmic QCD axion surprise ever.

Coming soon to a Blob near you.

Update 2: Chemistry is mine to take, apparently. Knowing me, I’ll be late to the ceremony.

Well, there’s always next year, I guess. Vera Rubin does not have that luxury anymore.

Update 3: I’m pretty sure that if I was invited I would make a point of attending.

A lot of very nice people were waiting for you to perform, Dr. Bob Dylan.

You’re a performer right? An artist? Even when I’m wrong, I show up.

Update 4: Vera Rubin Passed Away on Christmas Day Evening on December 25th, 2016.

Update 5:

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

Update 6:

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

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Mechanical Diamond Model of Topological Physics

by Tommy on 9/12/2016

Here is a very cool idea.

Edge states of mechanical diamond and its topological origin, Yuta Takahashi, Toshikaze Kariyado and Yasuhiro Hatsugai (8 December 2016)

A mechanical diamond, a classical mechanics of a spring-mass model arrayed on a diamond lattice, is discussed topologically. Its frequency dispersion possesses an intrinsic nodal structure in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone (BZ) protected by the chiral symmetry. Topological changes of the line nodes are demonstrated associated with modification of the tension. The line nodes projected into two-dimensional BZ form loops which are characterized by the quantized Zak phases by 0 and π. With boundaries, edge states are discussed in relation to the Zak phases and winding numbers. It establishes a bulk-edge correspondence of the mechanical diamond.

And what a wonderful exposition of their results.

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Interstitial Inter Galactic Dark Matter is Somewhat Smooth

by Tommy on 7/12/2016
Galactic Dark Matter Interstitial Voids

Galactic Dark Matter Interstitial Voids

This is getting a lot of press, mostly misinterpretive.

KiDS-450: Cosmological parameter constraints from tomographic weak gravitational lensing, H. Hildebrandt, et al., and the KiDS Collarboration, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, MNRAS, 465, 2, 1454-1498 (21 February 2017), doi:10.1093/mnras/stw2805

We present cosmological parameter constraints from a tomographic weak gravitational lensing analysis of ∼450 deg2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). For a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology with a prior on H0 that encompasses the most recent direct measurements, we find S8 ≡ σ8 √Ωm/0.3 = 0.745 ± 0.039. This result is in good agreement with other low-redshift probes of large-scale structure, including recent cosmic shear results, along with pre-Planck cosmic microwave background constraints. A 2.3σ tension in S8 and ‘substantial discordance’ in the full parameter space is found with respect to the Planck 2015 results. We use shear measurements for nearly 15 million galaxies, determined with a new improved ‘self-calibrating’ version of lensfit validated using an extensive suite of image simulations. Four-band ugri photometric redshifts are calibrated directly with deep spectroscopic surveys. The redshift calibration is confirmed using two independent techniques based on angular cross-correlations and the properties of the photometric redshift probability distributions. Our covariance matrix is determined using an analytical approach, verified numerically with large mock galaxy catalogues. We account for uncertainties in the modelling of intrinsic galaxy alignments and the impact of baryon feedback on the shape of the non-linear matter power spectrum, in addition to the small residual uncertainties in the shear and redshift calibration. The cosmology analysis was performed blind. Our high-level data products, including shear correlation functions, covariance matrices, redshift distributions, and Monte Carlo Markov chains are available at

I apologize that I not longer have time for long author lists and extensive HTML formatting of complex abstracts. Sorry. This is not an unexpected result for me. I’ll need to read it, though.

Meanwhile I will continue to smoove you with my theory of gravitational dark matter axions.

Just call me The Smoove.

I will smoove you.

I’m smoooovy.

Smoove me!

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Hall Viscosity and Drag for Effective Mass in Superfluids

by Tommy on 7/12/2016

This is a remarkably different perspective on this matter.

Transport in Superfluid Mixtures, Michael Geracie (5 December 2016)

We present a general method for constructing effective field theories for non-relativistic superfluids, generalizing the previous approaches of Greiter, Witten, and Wilczek, and Son and Wingate to the case of several superfluids in solution. We investigate transport in mixtures with broken parity and find a parity odd “Hall drag” in the presence of independent motion as well as a pinning of mass, charge, and energy to sites of nonzero relative velocity. Both effects have a simple geometric interpretation in terms of the signed volumes and directed areas of various sub-complexes of a “velocity polyhedron”: the convex hull formed by the endpoints of the velocity vectors of a superfluid mixture. We also provide a simple quasi-one-dimensional model that exhibits non-zero Hall drag.

Read it, and grok it (or at least try), even when life itself is a drag.

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Quantum Critical Point Behavior in Simple Lattice Models

by Tommy on 7/12/2016

Asymptopia is my new favorite word for the day.

Superconductivity and bad metal behavior near a nematic quantum critical point, Samuel Lederer, Yoni Schattner, Erez Berg and Steven A. Kivelson
(5 December 2016)

Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin 1/2 itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting Tc enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above Tc, we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior including a “nodal – anti nodal dichotomy” reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides and “bad metal” behavior of the conductivity.

Bad metal. Very Bad Metal!

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Topological Space Group Symmetries Catagorized

by Tommy on 6/12/2016

Gauging spatial symmetries and the classification of topological crystalline phases, Ryan Thorngren and Dominic V. Else (2 December 2016)

We put the theory of interacting topological crystalline phases on a systematic footing. These are topological phases protected by space-group symmetries. Our central tool is an elucidation of what it means to “gauge” such symmetries. We introduce the notion of a “topological crystalline liquid”, and argue that most (and perhaps all) phases of interest are likely to satisfy this criterion. We prove a Crystalline Equivalence Principle, which states that in Euclidean space, topological crystalline liquids with symmetry group G are in one-to-one correspondence with topological phases protected by the same symmetry G, but acting *internally*, where if an element of G is orientation-reversing, it is realized as an anti-unitary symmetry in the internal symmetry group. As an example, we explicitly compute, using group cohomology, a partial classification of bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases protected by crystalline symmetries in (3+1)-D for 227 of the 230 space groups. For the 65 space groups not containing orientation-reversing elements (Sohncke groups), there are no cobordism invariants which may contribute phases beyond group cohomology, and so we conjecture our classification is complete.

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Dark Matter Curvatons in a Double Cosmic Inflation Scenario

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

It took me a while to slog through this. The model is a bit ad hoc, and the math oversimplied with lots of speculative assumptions. But I must say I like the idea of a double inflation now. The only sense I can make out of all of this is that the great fall from the Planck scale to the Higgs scale is the secondary inflation, either accompanied by or followed by the reheating of the quark gluon particle plasma flux. In this case initial inflation event represents the entire Einstein mass energy equivalent of all of the gravitational field of space (time) itself, along with all of the mass energy equivalent of the dark matter and baryons contained within it. That’s a whole lotta stuff. Wow.

Curvaton as dark matter with secondary inflation, Jinn-Ouk Gong, Naoya Kitajima and Takahiro Terada, APCTP Pre2016-022, KIAS-P16084 (28 November 2016)

We consider a novel cosmological scenario in which a curvaton is long-lived and plays the role of cold dark matter (CDM) in the presence of a short, secondary inflation. Non-trivial evolution of the large scale cosmological perturbation in the curvaton scenario can affect the duration of the short term inflation, resulting in the inhomogeneous end of inflation. Non-linear parameters of the curvature perturbation are predicted to be fNL ~ 5/4 and gNL ~ 0. The curvaton abundance can be well diluted by the short-term inflation and accordingly, it does not have to decay into the Standard Model particles. Then the curvaton can account for the present CDM with the isocurvature perturbation being sufficiently suppressed because both the adiabatic and CDM isocurvature perturbations have the same origin. As an explicit example, we consider the thermal inflation scenario and a string axion as a candidate for this curvaton-dark matter. We further discuss possibilities to identify the curvaton-dark matter with the QCD axion.

I have to tell you that my mind is really completely boggled now.

So I guess it’s a big bang followed by a little bang.

Followed by a whole lotta hot non-nothing.

Cool. I like this already.

Update: Followed by the giant dark matter vacuum cleaner event.

The Cosmic Universe as Non Equilibrium Energy Conversion

The ‘Little Bounce’.

Update 2: It’s going to take a long time for the dark matter to clean up this mess.

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Chern Simons Axion Physics Coupling Theorem Explored

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

This is a nice clean presentation of axion physics in condensed matter physics systems.

Surface theorem for the Chern-Simons axion coupling, Thomas Olsen, Maryam Taherinejad, David Vanderbilt and Ivo Souza (24 November 2016)

The Chern-Simons axion coupling of a bulk insulator is only defined modulo a quantum of e2/h. The quantized part of the coupling is uniquely defined for a bounded insulating sample, but it depends on the specific surface termination. Working in a slab geometry and representing the valence bands in terms of hybrid Wannier functions, we show how to determine that quantized part from the excess Chern number of the hybrid Wannier sheets located near the surface of the slab. The procedure is illustrated for a tight-binding model consisting of coupled quantum anomalous Hall layers. By slowly modulating the model parameters, it is possible to transfer one unit of Chern number from the bottom to the top surface over the course of a cyclic evolution of the bulk Hamiltonian. When the evolution of the surface Hamiltonian is also cyclic, the Chern pumping is obstructed by chiral touchings between valence and conduction surface bands.

All your model are belong to us.

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Weyl Semimetals, Fermi Arcs and Chiral Anomalies Reviewed

by Tommy on 2/12/2016

Hasan is a leader of this field, but only because his name is recognizable.

Weyl Semimetals, Fermi Arcs and Chiral Anomalies (A Short Review), Shuang Jia, Su-Yang Xu, and M. Zahid Hasan, Nature Materials, 15, 1140-1144 (25 October 2016), DOI:10.1038/nmat4787

Physicists have discovered a novel topological semimetal, the Weyl semimetal, whose surface features a non-closed Fermi surface while the low energy quasiparticles in the bulk emerge as Weyl fermions. Here they share a brief review of the development and present perspectives on the next step forward.

So this has been fun over the last few years.

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I Guess I am Now Officially a Science and Physics Disruptor

by Tommy on 1/12/2016
Science Physics Disruptor Disrupting Disruption

Science Physics Disruptor Disrupting Disruption

Those are my new favorite words now.

This is going to be great fun.

But it won’t be pretty.

Science never is.

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The Master’s Thesis of Molly Rebecca Sexton at Oklahoma

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

This isn’t a very definitive Master’s thesis result, and it certainly isn’t PhD grade, but it is admirable that they all took the time to look into these nanodiamonds more closely. That being said, this doesn’t bode well for the Younger Dryas boundry layer sediments and sedimentary nanodiamonds, anywhere in the sedimentary record at all, so I guess I will all have to wait for more definitive results on this subject. It would be great if anyone could definitively identify and demonstrate the existence of sedimentary nanodiamonds, besides at known impact sites.

Statigraphic and Textural Analysis of Nanodiamonds Across the Younger Dryas Boundary Sediments of Western Oklahoma, Molly Rebecca Sexton, Master’s Thesis, Andrew Elwood Madden, Advisor, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma (2016)

Exposed sediment profiles of the panhandle of western Oklahoma have previously been shown to contain two peak abundances of nanodiamonds, one dated approximately to the Younger Dryas and the other from the Late Holocene. The sediments of the Bull Creek Valley contain numerous Clovis culture artifacts and megafauna remains that disappeared after the Younger Dryas Boundary Layer. Firestone et al. have proposed that the reason for this sudden disappearance is a bolide impact that broke apart in the atmosphere, scattering debris across the world (2007).

Nanodiamonds could be evidence for such an impact. In this study, I examined 12 additional samples collected at the same time as those reported by Bement et al. (2014) but not analyzed for nanodiamond content using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). These samples were collected at various locations along the same Bull Creek valley, Oklahoma, including sediments older than those analyzed by Bement et al. (2014) and an additional nearby location that crosses the Younger Dryas Boundary. No nanodiamonds were found in these samples. However, the results may not be indicative of the true nanodiamond abundance. In a further test, a grid was prepared from a sediment digest solution shown by Bement et al. (2014) to have a peak abundance of nanodiamonds. No nanodiamonds were observed in this sample, suggesting that the nanodiamonds may have a finite lifetime when preserved in an ammonium hydroxide suspension. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy was investigated and ruled out as a means of screening samples for nanodiamond content more quickly and easily. Prepared samples of sediment solution previously confirmed to have nanodiamonds showed no Raman peaks associated with diamonds, though this could also have been the result of the ammonium hydroxide suspension storage. However, samples of untreated commercial nanodiamonds also did not exhibit any characteristic diamond peaks, though possible peaks may have been obscured by heavy fluorescence.

Finally, the samples that were confirmed by Bement et al. (2014) to have nanodiamonds were divided into groups based on the ages of their sediments and highresolution (HRTEM) images of them were examined for the textures of individual grains in order to gain a better insight of how they may have formed. The textures were categorized as having no lattice fringes, partial fringes, continuous fringes, linear twins, nonlinear twins, or star twins. The nanodiamond grains in the Younger Dryas Boundary group had the lowest ratio of linear to nonlinear grains and one of the highest ratios of star twins to twins, both of which are indicative of a chemical vapor deposition formation mechanism.

This is the first study to analyze and compare nanodiamond textures from the same stratigraphic area. The differences found between the older and younger nanodiamonds suggests that further studies comparing textures across spatial and temporal boundaries could lead to more definite signatures indicative of their origins.

It’s a start, again, I guess. Hopefully she will look at it again, for her PhD.

Unless, of course, sedimentary impact nanodiamonds don’t exist.

That could very well be true, but I don’t see how.

Maybe they just all burn up in the air.

No Comments

Formal Gravitationally Induced Quantum Thermal Hall Effect

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

And here is the breakthrough. I’m cracking up. Again. Only formally now. Over.

Laughlin’s argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect, Ryota Nakai, Shinsei Ryu and Kentaro Nomura (29 November 2016)

We extend Laughlin’s magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin’s adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.

I can only suggest you give this a very careful reading.

Like I will do when I have the time.

I mean space. Or energy.

It doesn’t matter.

See also:

Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect, Ryota Nakai, Shinsei Ryu and Kentaro Nomura, New Journal of Physics, Volume 18 (10 February 2016)

A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern–Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the Strěda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory.

So quantum gravity is something like a thermal gradient.

The takeaway is that gravitons are diffusive.

This article is open access.

No Comments

Theory of Learning Subjected to Stochastic Thermodynamics

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

It’s more costly to learn from stored information than it is to store that information.

Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning, Sebastian Goldt and Udo Seifert (November 2016)

Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from that data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyse the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤ 1. We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyse Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

Who is Udo Seifert again? Didn’t he just win a Breakthrough Prize?

Some things are difficult to forget.

It takes too much energy.

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Natural Orbital Theory for Electronic Structure Calculations

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

At first I thought this was Marvin L. Cohen, but as usual, I was wrong. It’s Morrel H. Cohen.

A well-scaling natural orbital theory, Ralph Gebauer, Morrel H. Cohen and Roberto Car, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PNAS, 113, 46, 12913-12918 (27 November 2016), DOI:10.1073/pnas.1615729113

Computations of locations of nuclei and movement of electrons within molecules and materials are widely used in science and technology. Direct computation of a system’s wave function for that purpose becomes impractical as system size grows. Current alternative methods can have difficulty with strongly correlated electron motion or spurious electron self-interaction. By using “natural spin-orbitals” to describe the motion of individual electrons, solving for them together with their joint and individual probabilities of occurrence within the system, we are able to account better for electron correlation when strong while avoiding self-interaction and maintaining the growth of computation cost with system size at the level of Hartree–Fock theory. Our numerical results for some small test molecules are very good.

We introduce an energy functional for ground-state electronic structure calculations. Its variables are the natural spin-orbitals of singlet many-body wave functions and their joint occupation probabilities deriving from controlled approximations to the two-particle density matrix that yield algebraic scaling in general, and Hartree-Fock scaling in its seniority-zero version. Results from the latter version for small molecular systems are compared with those of highly accurate quantum-chemical computations. The energies lie above full configuration interaction calculations, close to doubly occupied configuration interaction calculations. Their accuracy is considerably greater than that obtained from current density-functional theory approximations and from current functionals of the one-particle density matrix.

Same provenance, it seems.

No Comments

Yet Another Low Frequency Microwave Cavity Axion Detector

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

That might work, or not. You gotta start somewhere. I’m leaning towards a gravitational detector.

Unless someone beats me to it. Something ultrasensive to gravitational perturbations, like LIGO.

Gravity and gravitation have consequences, even for generic sterile axionic bosons at 100 μeV.

Design and Operational Experience of a Microwave Cavity Axion Detector for the 20-100 μeV Range, S. Al Kenany, M. A. Anil, K. M. Backes, B. M. Brubaker, S. B. Cahn, G. Carosi, Y. V. Gurevich, W. F. Kindel, S. K. Lamoreaux, K. W. Lehnert, S. M. Lewis, M. Malnou, D. A. Palken, N. M. Rapidis, J. R. Root, M. Simanovskaia, T. M. Shokair, I. Urdinaran, K. A. van Bibber and L. Zhong (22 November 2016)

We describe a dark matter axion detector designed, constructed, and operated both as an innovation platform for new cavity and amplifier technologies and as a data pathfinder in the 5−25 GHz range (∼ 20 − 100 μeV). The platform is small but flexible to facilitate the development of new microwave cavity and amplifier concepts in an operational environment. The experiment has recently completed its first data production; it is the first microwave cavity axion search to deploy a Josephson parametric amplifier and a dilution refrigerator to achieve near-quantum limited performance.

All hail the probe.

No Comments

Laws of Thermodynamics Rederived from a First Principle

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

So it turns out the universe is just work storage space for a spacetime gravitational energy field.

And we’re just work storage space for the universe.

Large Deviation implies First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, Hiroyasu Tajima, Eyuri Wakakuwa and Tomohiro Ogawa (22 November 2016)

To reconstruct thermodynamics based on the microscopic laws is one of the most important unfulfilled goals of statistical physics. Here, we show that the first law and the second law for adiabatic processes are derived from an assumption that “probability distributions of energy in Gibbs states satisfy large deviation”, which is widely accepted as a property of thermodynamic equilibrium states. We define an adiabatic transformation as a probabilistic mixture of the energy-preserving unitary transformations on the many-body systems and the work storage. As the second law, we show that an adiabatic transformation from a set of Gibbs states to another set of Gibbs states is possible if and only if the regularized von Neumann entropy becomes large. As the first law, we show that the energy loss of the thermodynamic systems during the adiabatic transformation is stored in the work storage as “work,” in the following meaning; (i) the energy of the work storage takes certain values macroscopically, in the initial state and the final state. (ii) the entropy of the work storage in the final state is macroscopically equal to the entropy of the initial state. As corollaries, our results give the maximam work principle and the first law for the isothermal processes.

This is really a fine piece of work.

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Weyl Physics in FCC Topological Nodal Superfluids Simulated

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Ok so maybe I can still slog through all this breakthroughyness.

Besides the Nature Physics pseudogap result, which got press before I even saw the ArXiv version tonight (that will require a separate post), there was the topological crystalline magnets (wouldn’t you know), and then this piece which goes with the previous Weyl semimetal work.

Weyl points and topological nodal superfluids in a face-centered cubic optical lattice, Li-Jun Lang, Shao-Liang Zhang, K. T. Law and Qi Zhou (26 November 2016)

We point out that a face-centered cubic (FCC) optical lattice, which can be realised by a simple scheme using three lasers, provides one a highly controllable platform for creating Weyl points and topological nodal superfluids in ultracold atoms. In non-interacting systems, Weyl points automatically arise in the Floquet band structure when shaking such FCC lattices, and sophisticated design of the tunnelling is not required. More interestingly, in the presence of attractive interaction between two hyperfine spin states, which experience the same shaken FCC lattice, a three-dimensional topological nodal superfluid emerges, and Weyl points show up as the gapless points in the quasiparticle spectrum. One could either create a double Weyl point of charge 2, or split it to two Weyl points of charge 1, which can be moved in the momentum space by tuning the interactions. Correspondingly, the Fermi arcs at the surface may be linked with each other or separated as individual ones.

These are all, of course, the cosmological simulations I am now looking for. That was fast.

I am now officially freaked out. Again.

I feel a song coming on …

Cool. I mean hot. No, now that I think about it, cool.

I change my mind a lot sometimes.

I’m still allowed to do that.

No Comments

Holographic Conformal Field Theory of Phonons Developed

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

So moving along it gets worse right away in a hurry, as far as more work that I now have to do.

I can’t believe how much trouble I have gotten myself into, and I only just discovered the axion.

A holographic perspective on phonons and pseudo-phonons, Andrea Amoretti, Daniel Arean, Riccardo Argurio, Daniele Musso and Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas (28 Novevember 2016)

We analyze the concomitant spontaneous breaking of translation and conformal symmetries by introducing in a CFT a complex scalar operator that acquires a spatially dependent expectation value. The model, inspired by the holographic Q-lattice, provides a privileged setup to study the emergence of phonons from a spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a conformal field theory and offers valuable hints for the treatment of phonons in QFT at large. We first analyze the Ward identity structure by means of standard QFT techniques, considering both spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking. Next, by implementing holographic renormalization, we show that the same set of Ward identities holds in the holographic Q-lattice. Eventually, relying on the holographic and QFT results, we study the correlators realizing the symmetry breaking pattern and how they encode information about the low-energy spectrum.

See also:

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu-Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems, Tomas Brauner, Symmetry, 2, 609-657 (7 April 2010), DOI:10.3390/sym2020609

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle, that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both, nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i) Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii) Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii) Counting rules for Nambu-Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv) Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

These are all long, comprehensive, significant, breakthroughy papers.

I especially like the latter’s handling of the screened Coulomb interaction.

There are a couple more papers tonight alone like this that I still have to read.

I have to warn you though, this is easily a couple of months work for a normal human.

Update: But since I was raised by aliens, I’m good to go. I’m unskilled and I’m aware of that.

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The Differential Topology of Weyl Semimetal Quantum Phases

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Tuesday never lets me down on the ArXiv. Monday night.

This is something dear to my heart and I can actually read it.

Unfortunately this is really looking like at least several months work.

Differential topology of semimetals, Varghese Mathai and Guo Chuan Thiang (28 November 2016)

The subtle interplay between local and global charges for topological semimetals exactly parallels that for singular vector fields. Part of this story is the relationship between cohomological semimetal invariants, Euler structures, and ambiguities in the torsion of manifolds. Dually, semimetal invariants can be represented by Euler chains from which the surface Fermi arc connectivity can be deduced. These dual pictures, and the link to insulators, are organised using geometric exact sequences. We go beyond Dirac-type Hamiltonians and introduce new classes of semimetals whose local charges are subtle Atiyah-Dupont-Thomas invariants globally constrained by the Kervaire semicharacteristic, leading to the prediction of torsion Fermi arcs.

I like the way they talk about the decomposition of global and local charges. I can use that.

This is really good, but I haven’t read this kind of mathematics for a while.

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Early Cosmic Topology Modeled by Neutron Star Physics

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

This is as close to cosmogenesis physics as you are ever going to get.

3P2 Superfluids Are Topological, Takeshi Mizushima, Kota Masuda and Muneto Nitta (25 July 2016)

We clarify topology of 3P2 superfluids which are expected to be realized in the inner cores of neutron stars and cubic odd-parity superconductors. 3P2 phases include uniaxial/biaxial nematic phases and nonunitary ferromagnetic and cyclic phases. We here show that all the phases are accompanied by different types of topologically protected gapless fermions: Surface Majorana fermions in nematic phases and a quartet of (single) itinerant Majorana fermions in the cyclic (ferromagnetic) phase. Using the superfluid Fermi liquid theory, we also demonstrate that dihedral-two and -four biaxial nematic phases are thermodynamically favored in the weak coupling limit under a magnetic field. It is shown that the tricritical point exists on the phase boundary between these two phases and may be realized in the core of realistic magnetars. We unveil the intertwining of symmetry and topology behind mass acquisition of surface Majorana fermions in nematic phases.

But this is much closer than I thought I would ever get.

Bismuth iodide anyone?

No Comments

Theory of Electron Confinement in Superconductors Resolved

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

And of course it gets even better very quickly.

Meissner effect and a stringlike interaction, Chandrasekhar Chatterjee, Ishita Dutta Choudhury and Amitabha Lahiri (19 November 2016)

We find that a recently proposed interaction involving the vorticity current of electrons, which radiatively induces a photon mass in 3+1 dimensions in the low-energy effective theory, corresponds to confining strings (linear potential) between electrons.

Beautiful math and a beautiful result, what more can I say.

Things are really coming together.

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Non-Abelian Majorana Modes in 4D Weyl Physics Explored

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

Speaking of those Majorana monopoles, what a coincidence …

Non-Abelian Majorana modes protected by an emergent second Chern number, Cheung Chan and Xiong-Jun liu (November 2016)

The search for topological superconductors and non-Abelian Majorana modes ranks among the most fascinating topics in condensed matter physics. There now exist several fundamental superconducting phases which host symmetry protected or chiral Majorana modes. The latter, namely the chiral Majorana modes are protected by Chern numbers in even dimensions. Here we propose to observe novel chiral Majorana modes by realizing Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, i.e. the pairing density wave (PDW) phase in a Weyl semimetal which breaks time-reversal symmetry. Without symmetry protection, the 3D gapped PDW phase is topologically trivial. However, a vortex line generated in such phase can host chiral Majorana modes, which are shown to be protected by an emergent second Chern number of a synthetic 4D space generalized from the PDW phase. We further show that these chiral modes in the vortex rings obey non-Abelian loop-braiding statistics, which can be applied to topological quantum computation.

No Comments

Axion Particle Interactions at Ultra High Energies Proposed

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

Ok, tonight the very first paper on the ArXiv is breakthroughy.

On the PeV knee of cosmic rays spectrum and TeV cutoff of electron spectrum, Chao Jin, Wei Liu, Hong-Bo Hu and Yi-Qing Guo (25 November 2016)

The origin of the cosmic-ray knee has remained a puzzle since its discovery over 60 years. In addition, Some latest experiments have revealed a spectral cutoff of the electron around 1 TeV. We find these two spectral breaks have a similar Lorentz factor ∼106, and interpret this similarity with a threshold interaction induced by a new particle X abundant in the Galaxy. The interaction process CR + X ⟶ CR + X′ can take place when the effective energy is sufficient to convert it into the mass of another unknown particle X′ (as a representative to all possible threshold inelastic interactions), where the mass of X′ is 106 higher than that of the X with respect to the above mentioned common Lorentz factor. Thus cosmic rays will lose their energy above the threshold and produce a spectral break. Under this scenario, we can reproduce the spectral break for both the nuclei and electron, and predict a flattened spectrum for electrons after the cutoff. Given that there are uncertainties of experiments in determining the actual spectra of these breaks and their components, our model allows a wide mass range of the particle X from ultra low value to around 1 eV.

So there are either several bosons or their mass is excitation dependent.

It’s quite possible that they could be Majorana pairs as well.

Hey buddy, wanna buy a cheap breakthrough?

No sir, these breakthroughs aren’t hot.

I bought then at a pawn shop.

No Comments

Carnot Efficiency in Irreversible Processes Discussed

by Tommy on 27/11/2016

I’m not sure about this but I love this kind of stuff.

That’s as far as I’m willing to go until I grok it.

Carnot efficiency is attainable in an irreversible process, Jae Sung Lee and Hyunggyu Park (23 November 2016)

In thermodynamics, there exists a conventional belief that “the Carnot efficiency is reachable only when a process is reversible.” However, there is no theorem proving that the Carnot efficiency is impossible in an irreversible process. Here, we show that the Carnot efficiency is attainable in an irreversible process through investigation of the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet (FSR). Thus, this finding gives us a new possibility to develop a novel design of thermodynamic engines with high efficiency regardless of the reversibility. Our result also answers the long-standing question of whether the Carnot efficiency is possible in the FSR.

Myself, I’m just going for the 50%.

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Statistics of Non Equilibrium Fermion Systems Confirmed

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Yay for science!

Local entropy of a nonequilibrium fermion system, Charles A. Stafford and Abhay Shastry (22 November 2016)

The local entropy of a nonequilibrium system of independent fermions is investigated, and analyzed in the context of the laws of thermodynamics. It is shown that the local temperature and chemical potential can only be expressed in terms of derivatives of the local entropy for linear deviations from local equilibrium. The first law of thermodynamics is shown to lead to an inequality, not an equality, for the change in the local entropy as the nonequilibrium state of the system is changed. The maximum entropy principle (second law of thermodynamics) is proven: a nonequilibrium distribution has a local entropy less than or equal to a local equilibrium distribution satisfying the same constraints. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the local temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

Now what? Oh, yeah, the bosons.

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Out of Equilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensate Statistics

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Here is something that really caught my eye.

Uncertainty product of an out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate, Shachar Klaiman, Alexej I. Streltsov and Ofir E. Alon (22 November 2016)

The variance and uncertainty product of the position and momentum many-particle operators of structureless bosons interacting by a long-range inter-particle interaction and trapped in a single-well potential are investigated. In the first example, of an out-of-equilibrium interaction-quench scenario, it is found that, despite the system being fully condensed, already when a fraction of a particle is depleted differences with respect to the mean-field quantities emerge. In the second example, of the pathway from condensation to fragmentation of the ground state, we find out that, although the cloud’s density broadens while the system’s fragments, the position variance actually decreases, the momentum variance increases, and the uncertainty product is not a monotonous function but has a maximum. Implication are briefly discussed.

Dark. Really dark.

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Simulating Dynamical Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Grok this, will ya.

Dynamical Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking and Photo-Induced Chiral Spin Liquids in Frustrated Mott Insulators, Martin Claassen, Hong-Chen Jiang, Brian Moritz and Thomas P. Devereaux, (23 November 2016)

We show that optical pumping of frustrated Mott insulators with circularly-polarized light drives an effective spin system across a phase transition and into a transient chiral spin liquid (CSL). Starting from a Kagome Hubbard model deep in the Mott phase, circular polarization promotes a scalar spin chirality Si⋅(Sj × Sk) term directly to the Hamiltonian level, dynamically breaking time-reversal while preserving SU(2) spin symmetry. We find that the transient physics is well-captured by an effective Floquet spin model, fingerprint its phase diagram, and find a stable photo-induced CSL in close proximity to the equilibrium state. The results presented suggest a new avenue of employing dynamical symmetry breaking to engineer quantum spin liquids and access elusive phase transitions that are not readily accessible in equilibrium.

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Axions are Goldstone Bosons in Horndeski Gravity Theories

by Tommy on 25/11/2016

Horndeski gravity theories are basically extended (tensor) vector scalar theories of gravity, which reduce to Einstein gravity when you eliminate the resulting Goldstone bosons via the inverse Higgs effect in these obviously non-linear mathematical representations. So in this case, quantum cosmology reduces to identifying the correct version of Horndeski gravity, in other words, where are the higher derivatives truncated, and what is the nature of the various Goldstone bosons that result from those truncations. When this non-linear phenomenon reduces to the dark matter cosmic QCD axions as gravitational bosons, in addition to the Peccie-Quinn field at high energy, there are numerous other couplings at lower energy, those that we all know and love in condensed matter physics realizations and simulations at much lower energies. Given the nearly vanishing neutron electric dipole moment, this includes, of course, the superfluidity of liquid helium, photon coupling across all energy scales, electroweak coupling at higher energies, and with gravity – gravitational scale in Minkowski and Euclidean space involving Galilean symmetries, curvature with Lorentzian symmetries, and ultimately with black holes, the topology of spacetime itself. With the standard model, we are dealing with Lie algebras and other continuous symmetries, obviously, which locally reduce to discrete space point group symmetries (algebraic symmetries). In order to make any complete sense of all of this, one must ultimately resort to mathematical representation theories. So now that I have identified the cosmic QCD axions, the next step is deriving their correct quantum field theory.

The universe is clearly scale invariant across all energy scales.

As with Einstein gravity, I want the simplest theory that works.

This can now be tested in the laboratory and observationally.

No Comments

Helium States as a Universal Cosmic Simulator Environment

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

Last night was helium night on the ArXiv. All hail the chief.

Helium atom excitations by the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body formalism, Jing Li, Markus Holzmann, Ivan Duchemin, Xavier Blase and Valerio Olevano (22 November 2016)

Helium atom is the simplest many-body electronic system provided by nature. The exact solution to the Schrödinger equation is known for helium ground and excited states, and represents a workbench for any many-body methodology. Here we check ab initio many-body GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) against helium exact solution. Starting from Hartree-Fock, we show that GW and BSE yield impressingly accurate results on excitation energies and oscillator strength. These findings suggest that the accuracy of BSE and GW approximations is not significantly limited by self-interaction and self-screening problems even in this few electron limit. We further discuss our results in comparison to those obtained by time-dependent density-functional theory.

So that was great fun and highly enlightening. It gets much better!

See also:

On Nambu’s Fermion-Boson Relations for Superfluid -B, J. A. Sauls and Takeshi Mizushima (22 November 2016)

Superfluid 3He is a spin-triplet (S=1), p-wave (L=1) BCS condensate of Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J=0 in the ground state. In addition to the breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry, separate spin or orbital rotation symmetry is broken to the maximal sub-group, SO(3)S×SO(3)L→SO(3)J. The Fermions acquire mass, mF≡Δ, where Δ is the BCS gap. There are also 18 Bosonic excitations – 4 Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and 14 massive amplitude Higgs (AH) modes. The Bosonic modes are labelled by the total angular momentum, J∈{0,1,2}, and parity under particle-hole symmetry, C=±1. For each pair of angular momentum quantum numbers, J,Jz, there are two Bosonic partners with C=±1. Based this spectrum Nambu proposed a sum rule connecting the Fermion and Boson masses for BCS type theories, which for 3He-B is M2J++M2J−=4m2F for each family of Bosonic modes labelled by J, where MJC is the mass of the Bosonic mode with quantum numbers (J,C). Nambu’s sum rule (NSR) has recently been discussed in the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models for physics beyond the standard model to speculate on possible partners to the recently discovered Higgs Boson at higher energies. Here we point out that Nambu’s Fermion-Boson mass relations are not exact. Corrections to the Bosonic masses from (i) leading order strong-coupling corrections to BCS theory, and (ii) polarization of the parent Fermionic vacuum lead to violations of the sum-rule. Results for these mass corrections are given in both the T→0 and T→Tc limits. We also discuss experimental results, and theoretical analysis, for the masses of the JC=2± Higgs modes and the magnitude of the violation of the NSR.

It has become too difficult and time consuming for me to continue to cover breakthroughiness.

Especially when I am dealing with my own breakthroughy truthinesses coming fast and furious.

I’ll need an artificial quantum intelligence Tommy if I’m going to keep up with the breakthroughs.

No Comments

Excitonic Plasma Confirmed Inside the Quantum Pseudogap

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

This alternative study confirms the existence of the excitonic plasma in the pseudogap.

A Holographic Model for Pseudogap in BCS-BEC Crossover (I): Pairing Fluctuations, Double-Trace Deformation and Dynamics of Bulk Bosonic Fluid, Oliver DeWolfe, Oscar Henriksson and Chaolun Wu (21 November 2016)

We build a holographic model for the pairing fluctuation pseudogap phase in fermionic high temperature superconductivity/superfluidity based on the BCS-BEC crossover scenario. The pseudogap originates from incoherent Cooper pairing and has been observed in recent cold atom experiments. The strength of Cooper pairing and hence the BCS-BEC crossover is controlled by an effective 4-Fermi interaction and we argue that the double-trace deformation for charged scalar operator is a close analog in large N field theories. We employ the double-trace deformed Abelian Higgs model of holographic superconductors and propose that the incoherent fluctuations of the charged scalar in the bulk is the holographic dual of the fluctuating Cooper pairs. Using a Madelung transformation and the velocity-potential formalism, we develop a quantum fluid dynamics as an effective theory for these bulk fluctuations. The new fluid dynamics takes care of the boundary conditions required by AdS/CFT and encodes the vacuum polarization effect in curved spacetime. The pseudogap in conductivity can be related to the plasma oscillation of this bulk fluid.

This paper is deeply revealing and directly applicable to quantum cosmology.

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Curvatronics in Bilayer Graphene as a 4D Spacetime

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

This is another one that I just have to more or less regurgitate verbatim. Enjoy!

Curvatronics with bilayer graphene in an effective 4D spacetime, M. Cariglia, R. Giambò and A. Perali (17 Novenber 2016)

We show that in AB stacked bilayer graphene low energy excitations around the semimetallic points are described by massless, four dimensional Dirac fermions. There is an effective reconstruction of the 4 dimensional spacetime, including in particular the dimension perpendicular to the sheet, that arises dynamically from the physical graphene sheet and the interactions experienced by the carriers. The effective spacetime is the Eisenhart-Duval lift of the dynamics experienced by Galilei invariant Levy-Leblond spin 1/2 particles near the Dirac points. We find that changing the intrinsic curvature of the bilayer sheet induces a change in the energy level of the electronic bands, switching from a conducting regime for negative curvature to an insulating one when curvature is positive. In particular, curving graphene bilayers allows opening or closing the energy gap between conduction and valence bands, a key effect for electronic devices. Thus using curvature as a tunable parameter opens the way for the beginning of curvatronics in bilayer graphene.


See also:

Spatially-indirect Exciton Condensate Phases in Double Bilayer Graphene, Jung-Jung Su and Allan H. MacDonald (19 November 2016)

We present a theory of spatially indirect exciton condensate states in systems composed of a pair of electrically isolated Bernal graphene bilayers. The ground state phase diagram in a two-dimensional displacement-field/inter-bilayer-bias space includes layer-polarized semiconductors, spin-density-wave states, exciton condensates, and states with mixed excitonic and spin order. We find that two different condensate states, distinguished by a chirality index, are stable under different electrical control conditions.

Super interesting stuff.

No Comments

Dark Matter Initiated Faint Dwarf Galaxy Satellite Discovered

by Tommy on 22/11/2016
Faint Dark Matter Induced Satellite Galaxy Blob Virgo 1

Faint Dark Matter Induced Satellite Galaxy Blob Virgo 1

A New Milky Way Satellite Discovered In The Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey, Daisuke Homma, Masashi Chiba, Sakurako Okamoto, Yutaka Komiyama, Masayuki Tanaka, Mikito Tanaka, Miho N. Ishigaki, Masayuki Akiyama, Nobuo Arimoto, Jose A. Garmilla, Robert H. Lupton, Michael A. Strauss, Hisanori Furusawa, Satoshi Miyazaki, Hitoshi Murayama, Atsushi J. Nishizawa, Masahiro Takada, Tomonori Usuda and Shiang-Yu Wang, The Astrophysical Journal, 832, 1 (14 November 2016)

We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint dwarf satellite companion of the Milky Way based on the early survey data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program. This new satellite, Virgo I, which is located in the constellation of Virgo, has been identified as a statistically significant (5.5 sigma) spatial overdensity of star-like objects with a well-defined main sequence and red giant branch in their color-magnitude diagram. The significance of this overdensity increases to 10.8 sigma when the relevant isochrone filter is adopted for the search. Based on the distribution of the stars around the likely main sequence turn-off at r ~ 24 mag, the distance to Virgo I is estimated as 87 kpc, and its most likely absolute magnitude calculated from a Monte Carlo analysis is MV = -0.8 +/- 0.9 mag. This stellar system has an extended spatial distribution with a half-light radius of 38 +12/-11 pc, which clearly distinguishes it from a globular cluster with comparable luminosity. Thus, Virgo I is one of the faintest dwarf satellites known and is located beyond the reach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This demonstrates the power of this survey program to identify very faint dwarf satellites. This discovery of Virgo I is based only on about 100 square degrees of data, thus a large number of faint dwarf satellites are likely to exist in the outer halo of the Milky Way.

It seems like there are lots of irregular clouds of diffuse dark matter swishing around out there.

The question is, what happens when it gets close to dense high energy objects.

I have some very specific mathematically precise ideas on that subject.

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Comprehensive Microscopic SU(2) Theory of the Pseudogap

by Tommy on 22/11/2016

Excitons. Who would have guessed.

Effective SU(2) theory for the pseudo-gap state, X. Montiel, T. Kloss and C.Pépin (20 November 2016)

This paper exposes in a detailed manner the recent findings about the SU(2) scenario for the underdoped phase of the Cuprate superconductors. The SU(2) symmetry is formulated as a rotation between the d-wave SC phase and a d-wave charge order. After defining the operators responsible the rotations, we derive the non linear σ-model associated to it and show that SU(2) fluctuations are massless in finite portions of the Brillouin Zone corresponding to the anti-nodal regions (0,π), (π,0). We argue that the presence of SU(2) fluctuations in the anti-nodal region leads to the opening of Fermi arcs around the Fermi surface and to the formation of the pseudo-gap. SU(2) fluctuations lead, in turn, to the emergence of a finite momentum SC order, or Pair Density Wave (PDW) and more importantly to a new kind of excitonic liquid, the Resonant Excitonic State (RES), which is made of patches of preformed particle-hole pairs with multiple momenta. When the RES liquid becomes critical, electronic scattering through the critical modes leads to anomalous transport properties which can account for the Strange Metal (SM) phase at finite temperature, on the right hand side of the SC dome, shedding light on another notoriously mysterious part of the phase diagram of the Cuprates.

This idea is much more believable now after the third or fourth pass through.

It took me very little time to read this paper.

No Comments

Axion Mass By Resonant Josephson Junction Decay

by Tommy on 22/11/2016

I thought I had better review this now that the axion mass is better refined.

I have no problem with the axion mass being less than the cosmic microwave background.

The math is considerably simpler to understand by not delving into too many of the details.

Axion mass estimates from resonant Josephson junctions, Christian Beck, Physics of the Dark Universe, 7–8, 6–11 (June 2015), 10.1016/j.dark.2015.03.002

Recently it has been proposed that dark matter axions from the galactic halo can produce a small Shapiro step-like signal in Josephson junctions whose Josephson frequency resonates with the axion mass (Beck, 2013). Here we show that the axion field equations in a voltage-driven Josephson junction environment allow for a nontrivial solution where the axion-induced electrical current manifests itself as an oscillating supercurrent. The linear change of phase associated with this nontrivial solution implies the formal existence of a large magnetic field in a tiny surface area of the weak link region of the junction which makes incoming axions decay into microwave photons. We derive a condition for the design of Josephson junction experiments so that they can act as optimum axion detectors. Four independent recent experiments are discussed in this context. The observed Shapiro step anomalies of all four experiments consistently point towards an axion mass of (110 ± 2) μeV. This mass value is compatible with the recent BICEP2 results and implies that Peccei–Quinn symmetry breaking was taking place after inflation.

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The Cosmic Universe as Non Equilibrium Energy Conversion

by Tommy on 21/11/2016
Cosmological Eras

Cosmological Eras

From a highly excited low entropy state.

I get the idea as I progress that string theorists are not working from first principles.

I look at the universe as I look at the origin of life, and I come to view this as a complete outsider from a perspective of condensed matter physics. This has given me a unique and singular perspective, but sooner or later I have to get down to the nitty gritty of crackpot modeling. I look at this thinking – ‘can this be as simple as axion-Higgs physics in an excited gravitational field?’

With the origin of terrestrial biological life, we have a clear electromagnetic potential and the reduction of carbon dioxide in radioactively produced underwater alkaline hydrothermal vents, cascading energy dissipation through many electron volts through many dissipation processes down to ambient temperatures. Life as an energy dissipation process eventually transitioned to optical irradiation and photoconversion, transpiration and respiration, but the energy gradient magnitudes are similar. What we are confronted with the cosmos, is the Planck scale energy gradient falling nearly instantaneously down to the Higgs scale vacuum expectation value of 246 GeV. What we are finding now is that everything above that energy level, with the exception of a few stray cosmic rays and neutrinos, is a totally barren empty desert up to the Planck scale.

So the question is, are the QCD axions, which are guaranteed to exist, gravitationally coupled in some way, or are they simple ‘sterile’ Peccei-Quinn QCD axions? The so called axion decay constant, fa, is estimated to be half way to the Planck scale in Minkowski space. So my idea is that fa depends upon gravitational curvature, where a very small highly curved spacetime with standard model particles would be more strongly coupled. So my modelling assumes that axion production, as a result of the breaking of time reversal symmetry, occurs concurrently with standard model particle production by C, P and T in baryogenesis, and where the vast magnitude of the Planck scale energy potential drives the cosmic axion angle to a nearly infinitesimal value in ‘inflation’, instantly decaying into cosmic spacetime, cosmic QCD axions, and ultimately, a hot, expanding, standard model quark qluon plasma, slowly cooling itself off.

The result of decomposition of spacetime topological central charge into composite structures.

Here it is in case you need to refresh your memory.

So how does this proceed. Where does the energy go? Very mysterious.

Imagine a universe where the dark matter coupling ends up dragging all the baryons down a black hole someplace, and all the black holes eventually coalesce, and you end up with what you started, an evaporating singularity sitting by itself in empty space. Spacetime itself becomes meaningless no matter how big or old it is. The photons just get recycled. It does not exist.

Inside that singularity are a godzillion black holes merged together at some point in a time reversal invariant BCS-BEC topological superfluid with an arbitrary temperature, since it can no longer evaporate. In this case, the Planck scale. In other words, a potential Higgs field potential.

Now energize that field by a quantum fluctuation and allow that energy to relax back into some spacetime. A vast amount of the energy goes into the construction of the spacetime field itself, The cosmic QCD axions record the topology of the cosmogenesis event, and the standard model particles condense out as the process renews itself. The is the ‘little bounce’ model.

You heard it here first.

So religionists rejoice! It’s ALIVE!

The question is how much information can the universe pack into dark matter axions.

This is quantum mechanics, there is going to be great variation in particle production too.

It turns out our little bounce was a pretty big bang.

And here we are! In the cosmos.

My universe – in a nut shell.

Update 1:

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

Update 2:

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

© 2017 Thomas Lee Elifritz

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Lonsdaleite and Impact Nanodiamond Polymorph Structures

by Tommy on 20/11/2016

This subject is still controversial but understanding is now progressing.

This work exemplifies the value of a failed cosmic impact hypothesis.

Structures of meteoritic diamond nanocrystals, P. Nemeth, L. A. J. Garvie and P. R. Buseck, 30th European Crystallographic Meeting, 28th August – 1st September 2016, Congress Center Basel, Switzerland. MS18-04, Acta Cryst A., A72, s71 (2 September 2016)

Meteoritic diamond nanocrystals can provide information on stellar nucleosynthesis as well as shock processes occurring during cosmic and terrestrial impacts. According to published data, these crystals are structurally inhomogeneous and consist of ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m) plus a variety of sp3-bonded diamond polymorphs including h- (lonsdaleite), i-, m-, and n-diamond. These structures have received considerable attention because they are thought to indicate diagnostic formation conditions. In particular, the polymorphs have been widely used as indicators of asteroidal impacts and linked to mass extinctions such as the dinosaurs and mammoths. However, pure crystals, even tiny ones, of the polymorphs have never been reported. Furthermore, the diagnostic features of the polymorphs have been controversial, which posed serious problems with their identifications. In order to elucidate the structures of diamond nanocrystals, and thus to approach the issue of diamond polymorphs, we studied samples from the Canyon Diablo, Gujba, Murchison, and Orgueil meteorites as well as from the Popagai crater using an ultrahigh-resolution transmission electron microscope (uHRTEM). We found that diamond nanocrystals are intimately twinned and faulted. Combinations of {113} and {111} twins as well as {111} stacking faults produce uHRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from crystal-thickness effects. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported diamond polymorphs are all actually c-diamond containing intimate twins and stacking faults. This finding calls for reevaluation of implications regarding impact origins based on nanosized diamond polymorphs. The results also imply that defects are widespread in diamond nanocrystals, and these defects can give rise to a surprisingly diverse nanometer-scale structural complexity.

See also:

Structural characterization of natural diamond shocked to 60 GPa; implications for Earth and planetary systems, Adrian P. Jones, Paul F. McMillan, Christoph G. Salzmann, Matteo Alvaro, Fabrizio Nestola, Mauro Prencipe, David Dobson, Rachael Hazael and Moreton Moore, Lithos (30 September 2016), DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2016.09.023

The possible presence of the high-density carbon polymorph with hexagonal symmetry known as “lonsdaleite” provides an important marker for shock impact events. It is typically considered to form as a metastable phase produced from graphite or other carbonaceous precursors. However, its existence has recently been called into question. Here we collected high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for laboratory-shocked and natural impact diamonds that both show evidence for deviations from cubic symmetry, that would be consistent with the appearance of hexagonal stacking sequences. These results show that hexagonality can be achieved by shocking diamond as well as from graphite precursors. The diffraction results are analyzed in terms of a general model that describes intermediate stacking sequences between pure diamond (fully cubic) and “lonsdaleite” (fully hexagonal) phases, with provision made for ordered vs disordered stacking arrangements. This approach provides a “hexagonality index” that can be used to characterize and distinguish among samples that have experienced different degrees of shock or static high pressure-high temperature treatments. We have also examined the relative energetics of diamond and “lonsdaleite” structures using density functional theoretical (DFT) methods. The results set limits on the conditions under which a transformation between diamond and “lonsdaleite” structures can be achieved. Calculated Raman spectra provide an indicator for the presence of extended hexagonal stacking sequences within natural and laboratory-prepared samples. Our results show that comparable crystallographic structures may be developed by impact-generated shockwaves starting from ambient conditions using either of the two different allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite). This broadens the scope for its occurrence in terrestrial and planetary systems.

They have kind of overdone the lonsdaleite quoting here.

So lets all invite londsdaleite back into the “club”.

See also also also

Graphite-to-diamond (13C) direct transition in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell, Elizaveta Tyukalova, Boris Kulnitskiy, Igor Perezhogin, Alexey Kirichenko and Vladimir Blank, The 16th European Microscopy Congress 2016, Lyon, France, International Journal of Nanotechnology, 13, 8-9, DOI:10.1002/9783527808465.EMC2016.6073

13C-graphite treated in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell was studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that 13C-diamond and lonsdaleite originate after the treatment under high pressure and shear deformation.

That’s gotta hurt.

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Axion Derived Anomalies Found in Stellar Cooling Rates

by Tommy on 20/11/2016

Axions, they’re everywhere.

Hints of new physics from stars, Maurizio Giannotti, Contributed to the proceedings of the 38th International Conference on High Energy Physics (15 November 2016)

We review and update the current status of the observed anomalies in stellar cooling and their interpretation in terms of axions and axion like particles.

Axions. Cool.

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Lattice Simulations of QCD Thermodynamics Further Refined

by Tommy on 20/11/2016

This approach although different than the instanton gas approximation yields similar results.

Topological susceptibility in finite temperature (2+1)-flavor QCD using gradient flow, Yusuke Taniguchi, Kazuyuki Kanaya, Hiroshi Suzuki and Takashi Umeda, WHOT-QCD Collaboration, Report number: UTHEP-697, UTCCS-P-93, KYUSHU-HET-172 (November 8 2016)

We compute the topological charge and its susceptibility in finite temperature (2+1)-flavor QCD on the lattice applying a gradient flow method. With the Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson quarks, we perform simulations on a fine lattice with ~a ≃ 0.07 fm at a heavy u, d quark mass with mπ/mρ ≃ 0.63 but approximately physical s quark mass of mηss/mϕ ≃ 0.74. In a temperature range from ~T ≃ 174 MeV (Nt = 16) to 697 MeV (Nt = 4), we study two topics on the topological susceptibility. One is a comparison of gluonic and fermionic definitions of the topological susceptibility. Because the two definitions are related by chiral Ward-Takahashi identities, their equivalence is not trivial for lattice quarks which violate the chiral symmetry explicitly at finite lattice spacings. The gradient flow method enables us to compute them without being bothered by the chiral violation. We find a good agreement between the two definitions with Wilson quarks. The other is a comparison with a prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation, which is relevant in a study of axions as a candidate of the dark matter in the evolution of the universe. We find that the topological susceptibility shows a decrease in T which is consistent with the predicted χt(T) ∝(T/Tpc)−8 for three-flavor QCD even at low temperature Tpc < T < 1.5 Tpc.

See also:

Nf = 2+1 QCD thermodynamics from gradient flow, Yusuke Taniguchi, Shinji Ejiri, Ryo Iwami, Kazuyuki Kanaya, Masakiyo Kitazawa, Hiroshi Suzuki, Takashi Umeda and Naoki Wakabayashi, WHOT-QCD Collaboration, Report number: UTHEP-691, UTCCS-P-91, J-PARC-TH-0064, KYUSHU-HET-167 (6 September 2016)

The energy-momentum tensor is a very important quantity in QCD thermodynamics. Its expectation value contains information of the pressure and the energy density as its diagonal part. Further properties like viscosity and specific heat can be extracted from its correlation functions. A non-perturbative evaluation on lattice has been successful only for the pressure and the energy density by making use of property of the thermodynamical free energy intelligently. Recently a new method was introduced to calculate the energy-momentum tensor on lattice using the gradient flow. The method has been applied to quenched QCD and proved to be successful.

In this paper we apply the gradient flow method to the Nf = 2+1 flavors QCD. We adopt a single but fine lattice spacing which corresponds to a ≃ 0.07 fm. A wide range of temperature is covered from T ≃ 174 MeV to 697 MeV. The u and d quarks are rather heavy mπ/mρ ≃ 0.63 but the s quark is set to almost its physical mass mηss/mϕ ≃ 0.74. We find that the results of the pressure and the energy density by the gradient flow method are consistent with the previous results using the T-integration method at T ≤ 280 MeV, while the results show disagreement at T ≥ 350 MeV presumably due to the small-Nt lattice artifact of O((aT)2) = O(1/Nt2).

We also apply the gradient flow method to evaluate the chiral condensate avoiding the difficulty of explicit chiral symmetry violation with lattice quarks. We compute the renormalized chiral condensate in the MS¯ scheme at renormalization scale μ = 2 GeV with a high precision to study the temperature dependence of the condensate and its disconnected susceptibility. We obtain a clear signal of pseudo critical temperature at T ∼ 190 MeV related to the chiral restoration crossover.

There is a minor typo in the ArXiv abstract.

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Observational Substructure Anomalies in Abell 2744 Cluster

by Tommy on 19/11/2016

So dark matter might be weirder than we thought.

Abell 2744: Too much substructure for Lambda CDM?, J. Schwinn, M. Jauzac, C. M. Baugh, M. Bartelmann, D. Eckert, D. Harvey, P. Natarajan and R. Massey (9 November 2016)

The massive substructures found in Abell 2744 by Jauzac et al. (2016) present a challenge to the cold dark matter paradigm due to their number and proximity to the cluster centre. We use one of the biggest N-body simulations, the Millennium XXL, to investigate the substructure in a large sample of massive dark matter haloes. A range of effects which influence the comparison with the observations is considered, extending the preliminary evaluation carried out by Jauzac et al. (2016). There are many tens of haloes in the simulation with a total mass comparable with or larger than that of Abell 2744. However, we find no haloes with a number and distribution of massive substructures (> 5 1013 Msun) that is close to that inferred from the observations of Abell 2744. The application of extreme value statistics suggests that we would need a simulation of at least ten times the volume of the Millennium XXL to find a single dark matter halo with a similar internal structure to Abell 2744. Explaining the distribution of massive substructures in clusters is a new hurdle for hierarchical models to negotiate, which is not weakened by appeals to baryonic physics or uncertainty over the nature of the dark matter particle.

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Fundamental Excitations of Bose-Einstein Condensates

by Tommy on 19/11/2016

This in turn is applicable to a perturbed dark matter condensate.

Are Quasiparticles and Phonons Identical in Bose–Einstein Condensates?, Kazumasa Tsutsui, Yusuke Kato and Takafumi Kita (17 November 2016)

We study an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to clarify theoretically whether the spectra of its quasiparticles (one-particle excitations) and collective modes (two-particle excitations) are identical, as concluded by Gavoret and Nozieres [Ann. Phys. 28, 349 (1964)]. We derive analytic expressions for their first and second moments so as to extend the Bijl-Feynman formula for the peak of the collective-mode spectrum to its width (inverse lifetime) and also to the one-particle channel. The obtained formulas indicate that the width of the collective-mode spectrum manifestly vanishes in the long-wavelength limit, whereas that of the quasiparticle spectrum apparently remains finite. We also evaluate the peaks and widths of the two spectra numerically for a model interaction potential in terms of the Jastrow wave function optimized by a variational method. It is thereby found that the width of the quasiparticle spectrum increases towards a constant as the wavenumber decreases. This marked difference in the spectral widths implies that the two spectra are distinct. In particular, the lifetime of the quasiparticles remains finite even in the long-wavelength limit.

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Bosonization Duality Theories of Majorana Fermions Proposed

by Tommy on 19/11/2016

This is all super relevant and directly applicable to quantum cosmology, among other things.

Duality and bosonization of (2+1)d Majorana fermions. Max A. Metlitski, Ashvin Vishwanath and Cenke Xu (15 November 2016)

We construct a dual bosonized description of a massless Majorana fermion in (2+1)d. In contrast to Dirac fermions, for which a bosonized description can be constructed using a flux attachment procedure, neutral Majorana fermions call for a different approach. We argue that the dual theory is an SO(N)1 Chern-Simons gauge theory with a critical SO(N) vector bosonic matter field (N ≥ 3). The monopole of the SO(N) gauge field is identified with the Majorana fermion. We provide evidence for the duality by establishing the correspondence of adjacent gapped phases and by a parton construction. We also propose a generalization of the duality to Nf  flavors of Majorana fermions, and discuss possible resolutions of a caveat associated with an emergent global Z2 symmetry. Finally, we conjecture a dual description of an N = 1 supersymmetric fixed point in (2+1)d, which is realized by tuning a single flavor of Majorana fermions to an interacting (Gross-Neveu) critical point.

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The Cosmic QCD Axion Formerly Known As ‘Dark Matter’

by Tommy on 16/11/2016

I solve these problems to my own satisfaction, but sooner or later I have to write something up.

Fortunately, some of the major aspects of axion phenomena are already written up for me.

Cosmic Axion Bose-Einstein Condensation, Nilanjan Banik and Pierre Sikivie (23 January 2015), Book Chapter Entitled “Universal Themes of Bose-Einstein Condensation”, to be Published by Cambridge University Press, Edited by David Snoke, Nikolaos Proukakis and Peter Littlewood

QCD axions are a well-motivated candidate for cold dark matter. Cold axions are produced in the early universe by vacuum realignment, axion string decay and axion domain wall decay. We show that cold axions thermalize via their gravitational self-interactions, and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. As a result, axion dark matter behaves differently from the other proposed forms of dark matter. The differences are observable.

There remain some unresolved behaviors.

Update 1: Vera Rubin Passed Away on Christmas Day Evening on December 25th, 2016.

Update 2: I finally got around to writing it up.

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

Update 3:

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

© 2017 Thomas Lee Elifritz

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What’s Going On Planet Earth – The Cosmic QCD Axion

by Tommy on 16/11/2016

I have discovered a cosmic QCD axion, formerly known as ‘dark matter’, which is essentially a spin-0 gravitational boson for which the breaking of Peccei-Quinn symmetry at the electroweak and QCD scale are some of its effects. The cosmic QCD axion also interacts very weakly with electromagnetism through its gravitoelectromagnetic effects, and under the action of a strong magnetic field can be forced to decay into a pair of microwave photons with a mass energy somewhere in the vicinity of the cosmic microwave background frequency (CMB), or near the superfluid transition temperature of helium – 4He. Through these very weak electromagnetic interactions the axion may also be detected in microwave cavity devices, and resonantly via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in a superconductor shielded, rotating mechanism using hyperpolarized helium 3He. Axion physics and axion electrodymanics, as well as their unique gravitoelectromagnetic effects, can currently be simulated in more conventional condensed matter physics setups utilizing topological superconductors and insulators interfaced with ordinary magnetic and superconducting materials, as well as in helium based simulators.

The axion physics itself also translates very well down to near absolute zero using optically trapped and correlated cold atomic gas simulators.

The ground state of the cosmic QCD axion is a cold condensed superfluid state, where they are only very weakly gravitoelectromagnetic, electromagnetic, electroweak and Higgs scale physics coupled, while also presumably matter self gravitating. However these very weak higher energy couplings are persistent and continuous, and presumably change in the high density, strongly coupled environments of heavy planets, large hot stars, neutron stars and near black holes.

Cosmic QCD axions are also presumably strongly coupled with hypothetical spin-2 graviton bosons, or whatever that field turns out to be. Therefore some axion states are expected to be excited, and since the axion is a spin-0 gravitational boson, this excitation spectrum can consist of particles individually excited or full collective excitations, or any combination thereof, excited to as high a energy state as can be accommodated by the physics. Since the axions are also presumed to be primordial, that energy could be extremely high, since the axion decay constant fa is expected to be half way to the Planck scale in flat Minkowski space. The possible ways that the axion can couple to the graviton include scale, curvature, and topologically in some form.

Given all of these unusual properties from very strong to very weak, the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of the axion field is expected to be difficult to predict, but hints are already coming from galaxy rotation curves. The axion clouds are being dragged around by not only their self interactions however weak, but through baryon interactions that also range from the very weak and diffuse to the very dense and energetic. They appear to closely track the movement of the stars and gas in the galaxy while remaining clearly identifiable clouds of cold, dark, very weakly interacting bosons with a well defined gravitational mass. Given that the axions are very strongly gravitationally coupled quantum bosons, I fully expect that these axions may be stirred up and manipulated by a combination of multiple, geometrically arranged, fluctuating, coupled and/or revolving masses or mass articles. Once a reasonable detection, manipulation and excitation scheme is derived then the precise properties of the axion may be discerned and the various physical effects of axion excitation can be exploited, whatever they may be. Given the nature of the cosmic QCD axion, some of these effects may be shocking and/or unexpected, and may include the direct manipulation of local gravitational fields and the field energy contained within.

So lets all extend a warm welcome to the cosmic QCD axions, ok?

Axions are weird, but in a good way.

They’re SUPER axions.

Now let’s party.

Update 1: Vera Rubin Passed Away on Christmas Day Evening on December 25th, 2016.

Update 2:

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

Update 3:

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

© 2017 Thomas Lee Elifritz

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PhD Thesis of Zhen Wang at the College of William and Mary

by Tommy on 15/11/2016

Here is someone that took a good honest whack at the problems.

I haven’t gone through it yet to steal any of the good bits.

Applications Of High Energy Theory To Superconductivity And Cosmic Inflation, Zhen Wang, PhD Thesis, College of William and Mary, Joshua Erlich, Advisor (2016), DOI:10.21220/S28G6N

This dissertation examines applications of methods of high-energy theory to other physical systems: unconventional superconductors on the one hand, and cosmology on the other. Extra-dimensional models of superconductors, motivated by gauge/gravity duality in string theory, have proven remarkably successful in reproducing qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, aspects of unconventional superconductors. We analyze the universality of some of these predictions, and discover a universal relation between certain superconducting observables. The second part of this dissertation is about cosmic inflation. The evolution of the universe is sensitive to the fundamental particles and their interactions. We investigate models of cosmic inflation which involve the dynamics of one or more axion fields, and we explain how such models might be related to the flavor structure of the standard model.

And there are quite a few good bits in there to steal.

I’m moving in the opposite direction though.

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Mathematical Model of Physical Topological Phase Transitions

by Tommy on 15/11/2016

Enough of the fluff topics, it’s time now to get down to the nitty gritty of this.

Topology of configuration space of mean-field φ4 model by Morse theory, Fabrizio Baroni (12 November 2016)

In this paper we present the study of the topology of the equipotential hypersurfaces of configuration space of the mean-field φ4 model. Our purpose is discovering, if any, the relation between the second-order Z2-symmetry breaking phase transition and the geometrical entities mentioned above. The fact that the interaction is mean-field lets us solve analytically either the thermodynamic in the canonical ensemble or the topology by means of Morse theory. We have analyzed the results at the light of two theorems on necessary or sufficient topological-geometrical conditions for phase transitions and symmetry breaking recently proven. This study makes part of the research line based on the general framework of topological-geometrical approach to Hamiltonian chaos and critical phenomena.

See also:

The origin of phase transitions enlightened by an elementary classical spin model, Fabrizio Baroni (12 November 2016)

We introduce a classical spin model with long-range interaction undergoing a first-order Z2-symmetry breaking phase transition (SBPT) which is in our knowledge one of the simplest models showing such a phenomenon. Its aim is to enlighten the generating-mechanism of a SBPT in general, at least for long-range systems, even though it may be give hints useful also for short-range systems. Further, we present a general rule to model the shape of the long-range potential energy of a Hamiltonian system for a Z2-SBPT to occur. The main feature is a double-well potential which competes with the concavity of the entropy in shaping the free energy, accordingly to Landau mean-field theory of SBPTs. Finally, we revisit the Ising and the spherical model (Berlin-Kak) models in the mean version at the light of the results obtained here. The model introduced here may be suitable even for didactic purposes and for numerical investigation of the dynamic near the transition point.

And this:

A simple topological model with continuous phase transition, Fabrizio Baroni, J. Stat. Mech., P08010 (9 July 2011), DOI:10.1088/1742-5468/2011/08/P08010

In the area of topological and geometric treatment of phase transitions and symmetry breaking in Hamiltonian systems, in a recent paper some general sufficient conditions for these phenomena in Z2-symmetric systems (i.e. invariant under reflection of coordinates) have been found out. In this paper we present a simple topological model satisfying the above conditions hoping to enlighten the mechanism which causes this phenomenon in more general physical models. The symmetry breaking is testified by a continuous magnetization with a nonanalytic point in correspondence of a critical temperature which divides the broken symmetry phase from the unbroken one. A particularity with respect to the common pictures of a phase transition is that the nonanalyticity of the magnetization is not accompanied by a nonanalytic behavior of the free energy.

Again, this will take a while to sort through, but’s it’s my kind of work.

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History of Weyl Semimetals as Topological Materials Reviewed

by Tommy on 15/11/2016

Topological Materials: Weyl Semimetals, Binghai Yan and Claudia Felser (13 November 2016), Invited Review Article for Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics

Topological insulators and topological semimetals are both new classes of quantum materials, which are characterized by surface states induced by the topology of the bulk band structure. Topological Dirac or Weyl semimetals show linear dispersion round nodes, termed the Dirac or Weyl points, as the three-dimensional analogue of graphene. We review the basic concepts and compare these topological states of matter from the materials perspective with a special focus on Weyl semimetals. The TaAs family is the ideal materials class to introduce the signatures of Weyl points in a pedagogical way, from Fermi arcs to the chiral magneto-transport properties, followed by the hunting for the type-II Weyl semimetals in WTe2, MoTe2 and related compounds. Many materials are members of big families and topological properties can be tuned. As one example, we introduce the multifuntional topological materials, Heusler compounds, in which both topological insulators and magnetic Weyl semimetals can be found. Instead of a comprehensive review, this article is expected to serve as a helpful introduction and summary by taking a snapshot of the quickly expanding field

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Controlling Bi (110) and Bi (111) Thin Film Deposition Growth

by Tommy on 15/11/2016

This is what I was doing before I was struck by a stray gust of cosmic QCD axions a year ago.

Controlling the growth of Bi(110) and Bi(111) films on an insulating substrate, Maciej Jankowski, Daniel Kamiński, Kurt Vergeer, Marta Mirolo, Francesco Carla, Guus Rijnders and Tjeerd R.J. Bollmann (14 November 2016)

Here we demonstrate the controlled growth of Bi(110) and Bi(111) films on an (insulating) α-Al2O3(0001) substrate by surface X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity using synchrotron radiation. At temperatures as low as 40 K, unanticipated pseudo-cubic Bi(110) films are grown having a thickness ranging from a few to tens of nanometers. The roughness at the film-vacuum as well as at the film-substrate interface, can be reduced by mild heating, where a crystallographic orientation transition of Bi(110) towards Bi(111) is observed at 400 K. From 450 K onwards high quality and ultrasmooth Bi(111) films are formed. Growth around the transition temperature results in the growth of competing Bi(110) and Bi(111) thin film domains.

This looks pretty good though there are systematics that can be exploited here.

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Hubble Image of Dark Matter Rich Dwarf Galaxy NGC 4789A

by Tommy on 14/11/2016
NGC 4789A Dark Matter Rich Irregular Dwarf Galaxy

NGC 4789A Dark Matter Rich Irregular Dwarf Galaxy

This should give you a better look at it.

Double click to enlarge the image.

Then hit the back button.

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ARIADNE – Resonant Detection of Peccei-Quinn QCD Axions

by Tommy on 14/11/2016
Axion Sensitivity Resonant Detection

Axion Sensitivity Resonant Detection

Resonantly Detecting Axion-Mediated Forces with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Asimina Arvanitaki and Andrew A. Geraci, Phys. Rev., Lett. 113, 161801 (14 October 2014), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.161801

We describe a method based on precision magnetometry that can extend the search for axion-mediated spin-dependent forces by several orders of magnitude. By combining techniques used in nuclear magnetic resonance and short-distance tests of gravity, our approach can substantially improve upon current experimental limits set by astrophysics, and probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion. Our method is sensitive to PQ axion decay constants between 109 and 1012 GeV or axion masses between 10−6 and 10−3 eV, independent of the cosmic axion abundance.

See also:

APS Poster Abstract: G1.00001 : Testing the rotation stage for the ARIADNE axion experiment, Chloe Lohmeyer, Jordan Dargert, Harry Fosbinder-Elkins, Hannah Mason and Andrew Geraci, 2016 Annual Meeting of the Far West Section, Volume 61, Number 17, Friday–Saturday, October 28–29, 2016; Davis, California, Session G1: Poster Session, 4:00 PM, Friday, October 28, 2016, Conference Center Room: Lobby

The Axion Resonant InterAction Detection Experiment (ARIADNE) will search for the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion, a hypothetical particle that is a dark matter candidate. Using a new technique based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in 3He, the method can probe well into the allowed PQ axion mass window [1]. Additionally, it does not rely on cosmological assumptions. Our project relies on a stable rotary mechanism and superconducting magnetic shielding. Superconducting shielding is essential for limiting magnetic noise, thus allowing a feasible level of sensitivity required for PQ axion detection. Progress on testing the stability of the rotary mechanism will be reported, and the design for the superconducting shielding in the experiment will be discussed.

[1] A. Arvanitaki and A. Geraci, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 161801 (2014).

Also earlier:

The Axion Resonant InterAction Detection Experiment (ARIADNE), Andrew Geraci, Ariadne Collaboration, APS April Meeting 2015, abstract #E6.009 (April 2015), 2015APS..APR.E6009G

Axions are particles predicted to exist in order to explain the apparent smallness of the neutron electric dipole moment. While also being promising candidates for dark matter, in tabletop experiments axions can mediate short-range spin-dependent forces between objects. I will describe a new experiment for detecting short-range forces from axion-like particles based on nuclear magnetic resonance in hyperpolarized Helium-3. The method can potentially improve previous experimental bounds by several orders of magnitude and can probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the QCD axion, over a range that is complementary to existing axion search experiments.

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Cosmology Reveals Details About Horndeski Gravity Theory

by Tommy on 14/11/2016

People are starting to take this seriously.

What can cosmology tell us about gravity? Constraining Horndeski gravity with Σ and μ, Levon Pogosian and Alessandra Silvestri, Phys. Rev. D, 94, 104014 (7 November 2016), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104014

Phenomenological functions Σ and μ (also known as Glight/G and Gmatter/G) are commonly used to parameterize possible modifications of the Poisson equation relating the matter density contrast to the lensing and the Newtonian potentials, respectively. They will be well constrained by future surveys of large scale structure. But what would the implications of measuring particular values of these functions be for modified gravity theories? We ask this question in the context of general Horndeski class of single field scalar-tensor theories with second order equations of motion. We find several consistency conditions that make it possible to rule out broad classes of theories based on measurements of Σ and μ that are independent of their parametric forms. For instance, a measurement of Σ≠1 would rule out all models with a canonical form of kinetic energy, while finding Σ−1 and μ−1 to be of opposite sign would strongly disfavour the entire class of Horndeski models. We separately examine the large and the small scale limits, the possibility of scale-dependence, and the consistency with bounds on the speed of gravitational waves. We identify sub-classes of Horndeski theories that can be ruled out based on the measured difference between Σ and μ.

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Electromagnetic Responses of Bosonic Topological Phases

by Tommy on 14/11/2016

Michael Stone percolates through the Urbana-Champaign school of gravitational thought.

Topological Electromagnetic Responses of Bosonic Quantum Hall, Topological Insulator, and Chiral Semi-Metal phases in All Dimensions, Matthew F. Lapa, Chao-Ming Jian, Peng Ye and Taylor L. Hughes (10 November 2016)

We calculate the topological part of the electromagnetic response of Bosonic Integer Quantum Hall (BIQH) phases in odd (spacetime) dimensions, and Bosonic Topological Insulator (BTI) and Bosonic chiral semi-metal (BCSM) phases in even dimensions. To do this we use the Nonlinear Sigma Model (NLSM) description of bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases, and the method of gauged Wess-Zumino (WZ) actions. We find the surprising result that for BIQH states in dimension 2m−1 (m=1,2,…), the bulk response to an electromagnetic field Aμ is characterized by a Chern-Simons term for A with a level quantized in integer multiples of m! (factorial). We also show that BTI states (which have an extra Z2 symmetry) can exhibit a Z2 breaking Quantum Hall effect on their boundaries, with this boundary Quantum Hall effect described by a Chern-Simons term at level m!/2. We show that the factor of m! can be understood by requiring gauge invariance of the exponential of the Chern-Simons term on a general Euclidean manifold, and we also use this argument to characterize the electromagnetic and gravitational responses of fermionic SPT phases with U(1) symmetry in all odd dimensions. We then use our gauged boundary actions for the BIQH and BTI states to (i) construct a bosonic analogue of a chiral semi-metal (BCSM) in even dimensions, (ii) show that the boundary of the BTI state exhibits a bosonic analogue of the parity anomaly of Dirac fermions in odd dimensions, and (iii) study anomaly inflow at domain walls on the boundary of BTI states. In a series of Appendices we derive important formulas and additional results. In particular, in Appendix A we use the connection between equivariant cohomology and gauged WZ actions to give a mathematical interpretation of the actions for the BIQH and BTI boundaries constructed in this paper.

The dark matter axion problem will not be able to withstand this kind of theoretical onslaught.

I predict the universe will collapse quickly, but that it won’t give up without a fight.

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First Cosmic QCD Gravitational Axion Physics Model Appears

by Tommy on 13/11/2016

Now that I have actually discovered the cosmic axion, it’s time to get down to some specifics.

Solar neutrinos, helicity effects and new affine gravity with torsion II, David Alvarez-Castillo, Diego Julio Cirilo-Lombardo and Jilberto Zamora-Saa (10 November 2016)

The cross section for neutrino helicity spin-flip obtained from a new f(R, T) model of gravitation with dynamic torsion field introduced by one of the authors in [1], is phenomenologically analyzed. To this end, due to the logarithmical energy dependence of the cross section, the relation with the axion decay constant fa (Peccei-Quinn parameter) is used. Consequently the link with the phenomenological energy/mass window is found from the astrophysical and high energy viewpoints. The highest helicity spin-flip cross-sectional values presented in this work coincide with a recent estimation on the axion mass computed in [2] in the framework of finite temperature extended lattice QCD and under cosmological considerations.

This is an entirely new way of looking at things for me.

I like it already.

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ULA Atlas Centaur Launches Commercial Worldview 4 Satellite

by Tommy on 11/11/2016

My internet connection cooperated and I saw the most amazing Vandenberg Atlas V Launch.

The pad was surreal and the rocket cam views of the California coast were just spectacular.

United Launch Alliance ULA Atlas V Centaur Worldview 4

United Launch Alliance ULA Atlas V Centaur Worldview 4

It will be great when SpaceX gets back to launching.

That’s an awesome upper stage spaceship, eh?

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Axions – Thermal Equilibrium – Cosmic Microwave Background

by Tommy on 11/11/2016

If you’ve been paying any attention here you’ve probably noticed that I have discovered the axion.

Axions are spin-0 bosons whose collective and individual field excitations couple directly to the hypothetical spin-2 graviton field, through gravitational scaling effects, within our expanding four dimensional space time manifold. Axions couple very weakly to electromagnetism though gravitoelectromagnetic effects, weakly decay to pairs of microwave photons at their rest mass, and they contribute to the existence of a very small neutron electric dipole moment (EDM see the reference) and thus weakly interact with baryons and high energy baryonic processes.

Assuming a post inflation cosmogenesis scenario, possibly Kaluza related, a perfect Wigner crystal of ordered topological spacetime defects and/or a perfectly chaotic soup of unordered spacetime toplogy, would decay simultaneously with baryogenesis at the enormous energies of the Planck scale, and copious amounts of cold cosmic axions would have been produced as well as the baryons, presumably in an extremely dense quark gluon plasma, condensed out into an expanding spacetime, no longer under the constraints of time reversal invariant conditions.

Axions are in thermal equilibrium with the cosmic microwave background radiation, the CMB.

This is my new temporary standard model of quantum cosmology and cosmogenesis.

There are two ways to get quantum space time out of this, apparently.

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Pandora’s Box Envisioned for Extreme Quantum Plasmonics

by Tommy on 11/11/2016

This stuff is fun to think about.

Plasmonics for emerging quantum technologies, Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi and N. Asger Mortensen, To appear in Nanophotonics (9 November 2016)

Expanding the frontiers of information processing technologies and, in particular, computing with ever increasing speed and capacity has long been recognized an important societal challenge, calling for the development of the next generation of quantum technologies. With its potential to exponentially increase computing power, quantum computing opens up possibilities to carry out calculations that ordinary computers could not finish in the lifetime of the Universe, while optical communications based on quantum cryptography become completely secure. At the same time, the emergence of Big Data and the ever increasing demands of miniaturization and energy saving technologies bring about additional fundamental problems and technological challenges to be addressed in scientific disciplines dealing with light-matter interactions. In this context, quantum plasmonics represents one of the most promising and fundamental research directions and, indeed, the only one that enables ultimate miniaturization of photonic components for quantum optics when being taken to extreme limits in light-matter interactions.

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Axion Electrodynamics Applied to Dense Quark Matter

by Tommy on 10/11/2016

This is very good reading in the post axion world.

I had blogged an earlier version of this paper earlier, before time stopped and then reversed.

Dissipationless Hall Current in Dense Quark Matter in a Magnetic Field, E. J. Ferrer and V. de la Incera (2 November 2016)

We show the realization of axion electrodynamics within the Dual Chiral Density Wave phase of dense quark matter in the presence of a magnetic field. The system exhibits an anomalous dissipantionless Hall current perpendicular to the magnetic field and an anomalous electric charge density. Connection to topological insulators and 3D optical lattices, as well as possible implications for heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are outlined.

I didn’t invent the axion, but I found out how to find it.

And then I went out and found it.

So where is my treat?

See also: (blogged earlier)

Novel Topological Effects in Dense QCD in a Magnetic Field, E.J. Ferrer and V. de la Incera (18 December 2015)

We show that in dense QCD an axion field can be dynamically generated as the phase of the dual chiral density wave condensate that forms in the presence of a magnetic field. The coupling of the axion with the external magnetic field leads to several macroscopically observable effects. They are the generation of an anomalous uniform electric charge proportional to the magnetic field, the induction of a nondissipative anomalous Hall current, a linear magnetoelectric effect, and the formation of an axion polariton due to the fluctuations of the axion field at finite temperature. Connection to topological insulators, as well as possible observable signatures in heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are all highlighted.

I didn’t invent quantum weirdness either, but I found that too.

I don’t think they give prizes for that anymore, though.

Now every day is Halloween, in America.

Calvin and Hobbes Weirdness

Calvin and Hobbes Weirdness

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Nanoscale Quantum Interference Thermoelectric Heat Engine

by Tommy on 10/11/2016

Optimal quantum interference thermoelectric heat engine with edge states, Peter Samuelsson, Sara Kheradsoud and Björn Sothmann (9 November 2016)

We show theoretically that a thermoelectric heat engine, operating exclusively due to quantum-mechanical interference, can reach optimal linear-response performance. A chiral edge state implementation of a close-to-optimal heat engine is proposed in an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a mesoscopic capacitor coupled to one arm. We demonstrate that the maximum power and corresponding efficiency can reach 90% and 83%, respectively, of the theoretical maximum. The proposed heat engine can be realized with existing experimental techniques and has a performance robust against moderate dephasing.

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Future Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity Resolved Upwards

by Tommy on 9/11/2016
Future Global Surface Temperature Anomaly

Future Global Surface Temperature Anomaly

Nonlinear climate sensitivity and its implications for future greenhouse warming, Tobias Friedrich, Axel Timmermann, Michelle Tigchelaar, Oliver Elison Timm and Andrey Ganopolski, Science Advances, 2, 11, e1501923 (9 November 2016), DOI:10.1126/sciadv.1501923

Global mean surface temperatures are rising in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The magnitude of this warming at equilibrium for a given radiative forcing—referred to as specific equilibrium climate sensitivity (S)—is still subject to uncertainties. We estimate global mean temperature variations and S using a 784,000-year-long field reconstruction of sea surface temperatures and a transient paleoclimate model simulation. Our results reveal that S is strongly dependent on the climate background state, with significantly larger values attained during warm phases. Using the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for future greenhouse radiative forcing, we find that the range of paleo-based estimates of Earth’s future warming by 2100 CE overlaps with the upper range of climate simulations conducted as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Furthermore, we find that within the 21st century, global mean temperatures will very likely exceed maximum levels reconstructed for the last 784,000 years. On the basis of temperature data from eight glacial cycles, our results provide an independent validation of the magnitude of current CMIP5 warming projections.

Physics Trumps Stupidity

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America Embraces The New Authoritarian Fascist Regime

by Tommy on 9/11/2016

I guess I hate god now. But since there is no god, I’m good.

The Cosmic Evolution of Autobiogenesis

Happy Post Axion Day!

It’s all natural.

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Magnum Opus of Emergent Entropic Gravitation Published

by Tommy on 9/11/2016

A spin-0 boson at ≤ 235 µeV, called the ‘axion‘, and a spin-2 boson, called the ‘graviton‘.

Emergent Gravity and the Dark Universe, Erik P. Verlinde (8 Novemder 2016)

Recent theoretical progress indicates that spacetime and gravity emerge together from the entanglement structure of an underlying microscopic theory. These ideas are best understood in Anti-de Sitter space, where they rely on the area law for entanglement entropy. The extension to de Sitter space requires taking into account the entropy and temperature associated with the cosmological horizon. Using insights from string theory, black hole physics and quantum information theory we argue that the positive dark energy leads to a thermal volume law contribution to the entropy that overtakes the area law precisely at the cosmological horizon. Due to the competition between area and volume law entanglement the microscopic de Sitter states do not thermalise at sub-Hubble scales: they exhibit memory effects in the form of an entropy displacement caused by matter. The emergent laws of gravity contain an additional ‘dark’ gravitational force describing the `elastic’ response due to the entropy displacement. We derive an estimate of the strength of this extra force in terms of the baryonic mass, Newton’s constant and the Hubble acceleration scale a0 =cH0, and provide evidence for the fact that this additional ‘dark gravity force’ explains the observed phenomena in galaxies and clusters currently attributed to dark matter.

The alternative particle picture of quantum gravity. I ran. I won. I quit. God bless the universe!

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Illuminating Perspective Obtained on Quantum Critical States

by Tommy on 9/11/2016

And finally as I get sucked down the black hole, this is my last transmission. I’m done.

Can a quantum critical state represent a blackbody?, Sudip Chakravarty and Per Kraus (3 November 2016)

The blackbody theory of Planck played a seminal role in the development of quantum theory at the turn of the past century. A blackbody cavity is generally thought to be a collection of photons in thermal equilibrium; the radiation emitted is at all wavelengths, and the intensity follows a scaling law, which is Planck’s characteristic distribution law. These photons arise from non-interacting normal modes. Here we suggest that certain quantum critical states when heated emit “radiation” at all wavelengths and satisfy all the criteria of a blackbody. An important difference is that the “radiation” does not necessarily consist of non-interacting photons, but also emergent relativistic bosons or fermions. The examples we provide include emergent relativistic fermions at a topological quantum critical point. This perspective on a quantum critical state may be illuminating in many unforeseen ways.

It was good while it lasted. Over.

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New Techniques Developed For Paired Fermionic Systems

by Tommy on 9/11/2016

So I’m just trying to keep my mind off the oncoming disasters.

Many-body computations by stochastic sampling in Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov space, Hao Shi and Shiwei Zhang (8 November 2016)

We describe the computational ingredients for an approach to treat interacting fermion systems in the presence of pairing fields, based on path-integrals in the space of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) wave functions. The path-integrals can be evaluated by Monte Carlo, via random walks of HFB wave functions whose orbitals evolve stochastically. The approach combines the advantage of HFB theory in paired fermion systems and many-body quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) techniques. The properties of HFB states, written in the form of either product states or Thouless states, are discussed. The states are shown to be propagated by generalized one-body operators. The states can be stabilized for numerical iteration, and overlaps between two such states and one-body Green’s functions can be computed. A constrained-path or phaseless approximation can be applied to the random walks of the HFB states if a sign problem or phase problem is present. The method is illustrated with an exact numerical projection in the Kitaev model, and in the Hubbard model with attractive interaction under an external pairing field.

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The Topology of Chern Simons Theory Investigated

by Tommy on 9/11/2016

After that minor axion epiphany I need to get back to something I can actually understand.

Entanglement from Topology in Chern-Simons Theory, Grant Salton, Brian Swingle and Michael Walter (4 November 2016)

The way in which geometry encodes entanglement is a topic of much recent interest in quantum many-body physics and the AdS/CFT duality. This relation is particularly pronounced in the case of topological quantum field theories, where topology alone determines the quantum states of the theory. In this work, we study the set of quantum states that can be prepared by the Euclidean path integral in three-dimensional Chern-Simons theory. Specifically, we consider arbitrary 3-manifolds with a fixed number of torus boundaries in both abelian U(1) and non-abelian SO(3) Chern-Simons theory. For the abelian theory, we find that the states that can be prepared coincide precisely with the set of stabilizer states from quantum information theory. This constrains the multipartite entanglement present in this theory, but it also reveals that stabilizer states can be described by topology. In particular, we find an explicit expression for the entanglement entropy of a many-torus subsystem using only a single replica, as well as a concrete formula for the number of GHZ states that can be distilled from a tripartite state prepared through path integration. For the nonabelian theory, we find a notion of “state universality”, namely that any state can be prepared to an arbitrarily good approximation. The manifolds we consider can also be viewed as toy models of multi-boundary wormholes in AdS/CFT.

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The Mass of the Axion is 235 μeV – The Cosmic Background

by Tommy on 8/11/2016

You know me, when I go full on crackpot, I go all out.

I’m all in on this one.

Axions. Dude!

Update: Ha ha, that was fun. This election is driving me nuts.

The latest that I can find on the cosmic microwave background is here:

Cosmic Microwave Background, D. Scott and G.F. Smoot (8 February 2016)

So this is interesting reading and there is some basic cosmology in there as well.

So the question is what would the quasiparticle spectrum of an equilibrium superfluid be in an evenly expanding spacetime continuum. How can one excite it with baryon interactions, how gravitational matter interactions stir it up, how extreme dense matter interactions affect it, and where is the most of it exactly. It appears the mass of the bosonic particles are 50 to 1500 μeV, where the cosmic microwave background radiation sits roughly in the exponential middle, and non-gravitational interactions are extraordinarily weak. That’s the temperature of the universe.

To put this into perspective, the superfluid transition temperature of helium is 2.17 K. 187 μeV.

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The Universe is One Giant Microwave Cavity Axion Detector

by Tommy on 7/11/2016

It doesn’t get any more crankish or crackpotish than this. I dare you!

I just wanted to get this out there before the election. It might help!

And the mass of that axion is 235 μeV. Blue shifted or red shifted?

Excited up from T = 0? Stirred up by baryon collisions/dynamics?

It could be anything at this point, so all I can say now is stay tuned!

Update: Looking back on page eight, it’s just one year to the day.

The Topological Axion PhD Thesis of Ken Shiozaki at Kyoto

I predicted this! Now I’m swishing up the axions in my yard.

Update 2: A day that will live in infamy now. Axion day.

The day that the universe collapsed in onto itself.

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Microwave Cavity Axion Search Comes Up Empty at 24 μeV

by Tommy on 7/11/2016

This should give you a good idea of the difficulties involved in this, especially at 50-1500 μeV.

Here’s an idea, we are now detecting cosmic axions in the largest microwave cavity available.

The entire universe! That’s an idea I’ve been toying with for some time now already. The CMB.

First results from a microwave cavity axion search at 24 μeV, B. M. Brubaker, L. Zhong, Y. V. Gurevich, S. B. Cahn, S. K. Lamoreaux, M. Simanovskaia, J. R. Root, S. M. Lewis, S. Al Kenany, K. M. Backes, I. Urdinaran, N. M. Rapidis, T. M. Shokair, K. A. van Bibber, D. A. Palken, M. Malnou, W. F. Kindel, M. A. Anil, K. W. Lehnert and G. Carosi (8 October 2016)

We report on the first results from a new search for dark matter axions using a microwave cavity detector at frequencies ν > 5 GHz. We achieve near-quantum-limited sensitivity by operating at a temperature T < /2kB and incorporating a Josephson parametric amplifier. We exclude axion models with two-photon coupling gaγγ > 2 × 10−14 GeV−1, a factor of 2.3 above the benchmark KSVZ model, over the mass range 23.55 μeV < ma < 24.0 μeV. These are the first limits within the axion model band in the mass decade above 10 μeV.

So according to that idea of mine, the mass of the axion is 235 μeV.

So they are just off by a factor of ten.

Isn’t this exciting?

Axions! Heavy.

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PhD Thesis of Michael Geracie at the University of Chicago

by Tommy on 7/11/2016

Finally! This is going to take me months to work through. Or probably a week at least.

Galilean Geometry in Condensed Matter Systems, Michael Geracie, PhD Thesis (7 November 2016)

We present a systematic means to impose Galilean invariance within field theory. We begin by defining the most general background geometries consistent with Galilean invariance and then turn to applications within effective field theory, fluid dynamics, and the quantum Hall effect.

92 pages, contains substantial overlap with 1407.1242, 1408.6843, 1503.02680, 1503.02682, and 1609.06729. You can just click on his name in the ArXiv.

See for instance:

Physical stress, mass, and energy for non-relativistic spinful matter, Michael Geracie, Kartik Prabhu and Matthew M. Roberts (21 September 2016)

For theories of relativistic matter fields with spin there exist two possible definitions of the stress-energy tensor, one defined by a variation of the action with the coframes at fixed connection, and the other at fixed torsion. These two stress-energy tensors do not necessarily coincide and it is the latter that corresponds to the Cauchy stress measured in the lab. In this note we discuss the corresponding issue for non-relativistic matter theories. We point out that while the physical non-relativistic stress, momentum, and mass currents are defined by a variation of the action at fixed torsion, the energy current does not admit such a description and is naturally defined at fixed connection. Any attempt to define an energy current at fixed torsion results in an ambiguity which cannot be resolved from the background spacetime data or conservation laws. We also provide computations of these quantities for some simple non-relativistic actions.

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Exfoliated Bismuthene Thin Film Transfer Method Developed

by Tommy on 5/11/2016
Exfoliated Bismuthene Thin Film

Exfoliated Bismuthene Thin Film

Large-Area Dry Transfer of Single-Crystalline Epitaxial Bismuth Thin Films, Emily S. Walker, Seung Ryul Na, Daehwan Jung, Stephen D. March, Joon-Seok Kim, Tanuj Trivedi, Wei Li, Li Tao, Minjoo L. Lee, Kenneth M. Liecht, Deji Akinwande, and Seth R. Bank, Nano Lett., Article ASAP (19 October 2016), DOI:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02931

We report the first direct dry transfer of a single-crystalline thin film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A double cantilever beam fracture technique was used to transfer epitaxial bismuth thin films grown on silicon (111) to silicon strips coated with epoxy. The transferred bismuth films retained electrical, optical, and structural properties comparable to the as-grown epitaxial films. Additionally, we isolated the bismuth thin films on freestanding flexible cured-epoxy post-transfer. The adhesion energy at the bismuth/silicon interface was measured to be ∼1 J/m2, comparable to that of exfoliated and wet transferred graphene. This low adhesion energy and ease of transfer is unexpected for an epitaxially grown film and may enable the study of bismuth’s unique electronic and spintronic properties on arbitrary substrates. Moreover, this method suggests a route to integrate other group-V epitaxial films (i.e., phosphorus) with arbitrary substrates, as well as potentially to isolate bismuthene, the atomic thin-film limit of bismuth.

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Exact 1D Analytic Polaron to Molecule Transition Solved

by Tommy on 4/11/2016

This is truly a result straight off my scientific bucket list.

Exact results for polaron and molecule in one-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas, Runxin Mao, X. W. Guan and Biao Wu, Phys. Rev. A 94, 043645 (27 October 2016), DOI:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.043645

Using exact Bethe ansatz (BA) solutions, we show that a spin-down fermion immersed into a fully polarized spin-up Fermi sea with a weak attraction is dressed by the surrounding spin-up fermions to form the one-dimensional analog of a polaron. As the attraction becomes strong, the spin-down fermion binds with one spin-up fermion to form a tightly bound molecule. Throughout the whole interaction regime, a crossover from the polaron to a molecule state is fully demonstrated through exact results of the excitation spectrum, the effective mass, binding energy and kinetic energy. Furthermore, a clear distinction between the polaron and molecule is conceived by the probability distribution, single particle reduced density matrix and density-density correlations, which are calculated directly from the Bethe ansatz wave function. Such a polaron-molecule crossover presents a universal nature of an impurity immersed into a fermionic medium with an attraction in one dimension.

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ALPS Axion Dark Matter Generator Detector at DESY 2019

by Tommy on 4/11/2016

This sounds like the most awesome axion dark matter gonkulator ever!

ALPS: the Dark Matter Generator (coming in 2019), Simon Barke, Zachary Bush, Claire Baum, Hal Hollis, Guido Mueller and David Tanner, Abstract: C9.00004, American Physical Society APS April Meeting 2017, Saturday–Tuesday, January 28–31, 2017; Washington, DC, Session C9: Dark Matter: R&D and New Directions, 1:30 PM – 3:18 PM, Saturday, January 28, 2017, Room: Roosevelt 1, Sponsoring Unit: DPF

Very promising dark matter candidates are axion-like particles: sub-eV particles that are expected to (weakly) interact with photons in the presence of a static electric or magnetic field. This interaction can turn photons into axions and back into photons. Hence, in order to generate axions, we will set up a 100 meter long Fabry-Perot cavity that can hold a ≈ 150,000 watt laser field and have a 5.3 tesla magnetic field along the entire length. If the theory holds up, a fraction of the photons should transform into relativistic axions. These axions would then propagate through any optical barrier and enter a matched cavity that is situated within an identical magnetic field. Here, some of the axions should turn back into photons of equal energy. Thus these photons resonate in the otherwise empty cavity where they can be detected. It is unknown if axion-like particles exist in the targeted mass range. However, the ALPS detection principle is very convenient because we will know the exact energy of the regenerated photons beforehand thus making a detection much easier.The final stage of the ALPS experiment will be completed by 2019 at the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) site in Hamburg, Germany.

Soon we will be shooting axions through the earth!

Behold the axion generator detector era!

I’m not sure if this will work.

So I’m building my own.

Axion Modulator.

Very exciting.

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Universe Axion Equation of State Calculated by Lattice QCD

by Tommy on 3/11/2016

This is the auxiliary result corresponding to an ArXiv publication I blogged earlier.

Calculation of the axion mass based on high-temperature lattice quantum chromodynamics, S. Borsanyi, Z. Fodor, J. Guenther, K.-H. Kampert, S. D. Katz, T. Kawanai, T. G. Kovacs, S. W. Mages, A. Pasztor, F. Pittler, J. Redondo, A. Ringwald and K. K. Szabo, Nature, 539, 69–71 (03 November 2016), doi:10.1038/nature20115

Unlike the electroweak sector of the standard model of particle physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is surprisingly symmetric under time reversal. As there is no obvious reason for QCD being so symmetric, this phenomenon poses a theoretical problem, often referred to as the strong CP problem. The most attractive solution for this requires the existence of a new particle, the axion — a promising dark-matter candidate. Here we determine the axion mass using lattice QCD, assuming that these particles are the dominant component of dark matter. The key quantities of the calculation are the equation of state of the Universe and the temperature dependence of the topological susceptibility of QCD, a quantity that is notoriously difficult to calculate, especially in the most relevant high-temperature region (up to several gigaelectronvolts). But by splitting the vacuum into different sectors and re-defining the fermionic determinants, its controlled calculation becomes feasible. Thus, our twofold prediction helps most cosmological calculations to describe the evolution of the early Universe by using the equation of state, and may be decisive for guiding experiments looking for dark-matter axions. In the next couple of years, it should be possible to confirm or rule out post-inflation axions experimentally, depending on whether the axion mass is found to be as predicted here. Alternatively, in a pre-inflation scenario, our calculation determines the universal axionic angle that corresponds to the initial condition of our Universe.

Abacadabra … open sesame!

Update: I haven’t read this published version of the paper yet, and it’s that time of year now where I have to go outside and rustle up some axions myself, in the form of swishing up a whole lotta maple leaves in my yard, my driveway, the sidewalk and the street and tossing them into the garden. And I’d like to spend some time away from this subject too since I have explored it for an entire year now and I’ve made most of these predictions myself already. However, I can comment on this for those interested, and you can go back through the many pages of my axion adventure and follow my line of reasoning here, if not my back of the envelope calculations. It appears now that the MIT mini magnatar and ABARACADABRA are out, as is the ADMX. And the axion mass appears to be sitting squarely on or within a reasonable range of the cosmic microware background radiation (CMB) frequency (mass energy …) and very near the range of various liquid helium phase transition temperatures, which is going to complicate things a lot.

Or possibly simplify them a great deal.

But that is HUGE hint about the topological and gravitational nature of the cosmic axions in the post inflation scenario. if there even is such a thing as inflation. I am also becoming extremely skeptical that is the right paradigm anymore. So basically we need an entirely new detection strategy and an entirely new detector, plus we need an entirely new axion paradigm as well, since it’s clear that as a composite boson that these things can be excited and coupled to both the standard model and gravitation.

The inverse Higgs effect in nonlinear realizations.

The Inverse Higgs Phenomenon in Nonlinear Realizations, E. A. Ivanov and V. I. Ogievetsky, Teor. Mat. Fiz., 25, 164-177, Translated from Teoreticheskaya i Matematicheskaya Fizika

(27 February 1975), DOI:10.1007/BF01028947

So to help things along I am posting a copy of this translation on my website.

Now I need to go deal with my own axion problem.

After that … some live jazz.

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Weirdness Begins to Appear Within the Quantum Pseudogap

by Tommy on 2/11/2016

Quantum chaos on a critical Fermi surface, Aavishkar A. Patel and Subir Sachdev (31 October 2016)

We compute parameters characterizing many-body quantum chaos for a critical Fermi surface without quasiparticle excitations. We examine a theory of N species of fermions at non-zero density coupled to a U(1) gauge field in two spatial dimensions, and determine the Lyapunov rate and the butterfly velocity in an extended RPA approximation. The thermal diffusivity is found to be universally related to these chaos parameters, i.e. the relationship is independent of N, the gauge coupling constant, the Fermi velocity, the Fermi surface curvature, and high energy details.

Of course it also takes bosons to make this work.

So this is just half the story.

See also:

A fractionalized Fermi liquid with bosonic chargons as a candidate for the pseudogap metal, Shubhayu Chatterjee and Subir Sachdev (19 July 2016)

Doping a Mott-insulating Z2 spin liquid can lead to a fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*). Such a phase has several favorable features that make it a candidate for the pseudogap metal for the underdoped cuprates. We focus on a particular, simple Z2-FL* state which can undergo a confinement transition to a spatially uniform superconductor which is smoothly connected to the `plain vanilla’ BCS superconductor with d-wave pairing. Such a transition occurs by the condensation of bosonic particles carrying +e charge but no spin (`chargons’). We show that modifying the dispersion of the bosonic chargons can lead to confinement transitions with charge density waves and pair density waves at the same wave-vector K, co-existing with d-wave superconductivity. We also compute the evolution of the Hall number in the normal state during the transition from the plain vanilla FL* state to a Fermi liquid, and argue, following Coleman etal., that it exhibits a discontinuous jump near optimal doping. We note the distinction between these results and those obtained from models of the pseudogap with fermionic chargons. spin liquid can lead to a fractionalized Fermi liquid (FL*). Such a phase has several favorable features that make it a candidate for the pseudogap metal for the underdoped cuprates. We focus on a particular, simple Z2-FL* state which can undergo a confinement transition to a spatially uniform superconductor which is smoothly connected to the `plain vanilla’ BCS superconductor with d-wave pairing. Such a transition occurs by the condensation of bosonic particles carrying +e charge but no spin (`chargons’). We show that modifying the dispersion of the bosonic chargons can lead to confinement transitions with charge density waves and pair density waves at the same wave-vector K, co-existing with d-wave superconductivity. We also compute the evolution of the Hall number in the normal state during the transition from the plain vanilla FL* state to a Fermi liquid, and argue, following Coleman etal., that it exhibits a discontinuous jump near optimal doping. We note the distinction between these results and those obtained from models of the pseudogap with fermionic chargons.

So add strongly coupled quantum critical bosons, fermions, excitons, chargeons, etc, with the fractionalization of the fermions and the superfluidity of the bosons, and then mix in the chaos.

And voilà! You have weirdness in the quantum pseudogap. That’s us.

Er … or rather, that’s me.

Happy Halloween!

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Fluctuating Non Equilibrium Steady States Drive Life

by Tommy on 2/11/2016

It’s James P. Crutchfield Origin of Life Night on the ArXiv.

Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States, P. M. Riechers and J. P. Crutchfield (29 October 2016)

Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balance dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify constraints on excess thermodynamic quantities that ride above the NESS housekeeping background. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. Altogether, these point to universal thermodynamic laws that are immediately applicable to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, this readily allows analyzing a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

Santa Fe Working Paper

See also:

Leveraging Environmental Correlations: The Thermodynamics of Requisite Variety, Alexander B. Boyd, Dibyendu Mandal and James P. Crutchfield (17 September 2016)

Key to biological success, the requisite variety that confronts an adaptive organism is the set of detectable, accessible, and controllable states in its environment. We analyze its role in the thermodynamic functioning of information ratchets—a form of autonomous Maxwellian Demon capable of exploiting fluctuations in an external information reservoir to harvest useful work from a thermal bath. This establishes a quantitative paradigm for understanding how adaptive agents leverage structured thermal environments for their own thermodynamic benefit. General ratchets behave as memoryful communication channels, interacting with their environment sequentially and storing results to an output. The bulk of thermal ratchets analyzed to date, however, assume memoryless environments that generate input signals without temporal correlations. Employing computational mechanics and a new information-processing Second Law of Thermodynamics (IPSL) we remove these restrictions, analyzing general finite-state ratchets interacting with structured environments that generate correlated input signals. On the one hand, we demonstrate that a ratchet need not have memory to exploit an uncorrelated environment. On the other, and more appropriate to biological adaptation, we show that a ratchet must have memory to most effectively leverage structure and correlation in its environment. The lesson is that to optimally harvest work a ratchet’s memory must reflect the input generator’s memory. Finally, we investigate achieving the IPSL bounds on the amount of work a ratchet can extract from its environment, discovering that finite-state, optimal ratchets are unable to reach these bounds. In contrast, we show that infinite-state ratchets can go well beyond these bounds by utilizing their own infinite “negentropy”. We conclude with an outline of the collective thermodynamics of information-ratchet swarms.

Santa Fe Working Paper

The Sante Fe Institute 2016 Working Papers

I guess that pretty much wraps it up for the origin of life thing.

Prizes all around, of some sort or other.

Update: I suppose I would be remiss if I did not include a link to my essay.

You never know, I might win a prize.

Or get a treat.

Update 2: The James Crutchfield Institute of Unknown Purpose

Tongue-in-cheek museum will meld science, art.

The Davis Enterprise.

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