Mechanical Diamond Model of Topological Physics

by Tommy on 9/12/2016

Here is a very cool idea.

Edge states of mechanical diamond and its topological origin, Yuta Takahashi, Toshikaze Kariyado and Yasuhiro Hatsugai (8 December 2016)

A mechanical diamond, a classical mechanics of a spring-mass model arrayed on a diamond lattice, is discussed topologically. Its frequency dispersion possesses an intrinsic nodal structure in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone (BZ) protected by the chiral symmetry. Topological changes of the line nodes are demonstrated associated with modification of the tension. The line nodes projected into two-dimensional BZ form loops which are characterized by the quantized Zak phases by 0 and π. With boundaries, edge states are discussed in relation to the Zak phases and winding numbers. It establishes a bulk-edge correspondence of the mechanical diamond.

And what a wonderful exposition of their results.

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Interstitial Inter Galactic Dark Matter is Somewhat Smooth

by Tommy on 7/12/2016
Galactic Dark Matter Interstitial Voids

Galactic Dark Matter Interstitial Voids

This is getting a lot of press, mostly misinterpretive.

KiDS-450: Cosmological parameter constraints from tomographic weak gravitational lensing, H. Hildebrandt, et al., and the KiDS Collarboration, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, MNRAS, 465, 2, 1454-1498 (21 February 2017), doi:10.1093/mnras/stw2805

We present cosmological parameter constraints from a tomographic weak gravitational lensing analysis of ∼450 deg2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). For a flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology with a prior on H0 that encompasses the most recent direct measurements, we find S8 ≡ σ8 √Ωm/0.3 = 0.745 ± 0.039. This result is in good agreement with other low-redshift probes of large-scale structure, including recent cosmic shear results, along with pre-Planck cosmic microwave background constraints. A 2.3σ tension in S8 and ‘substantial discordance’ in the full parameter space is found with respect to the Planck 2015 results. We use shear measurements for nearly 15 million galaxies, determined with a new improved ‘self-calibrating’ version of lensfit validated using an extensive suite of image simulations. Four-band ugri photometric redshifts are calibrated directly with deep spectroscopic surveys. The redshift calibration is confirmed using two independent techniques based on angular cross-correlations and the properties of the photometric redshift probability distributions. Our covariance matrix is determined using an analytical approach, verified numerically with large mock galaxy catalogues. We account for uncertainties in the modelling of intrinsic galaxy alignments and the impact of baryon feedback on the shape of the non-linear matter power spectrum, in addition to the small residual uncertainties in the shear and redshift calibration. The cosmology analysis was performed blind. Our high-level data products, including shear correlation functions, covariance matrices, redshift distributions, and Monte Carlo Markov chains are available at

I apologize that I not longer have time for long author lists and extensive HTML formatting of complex abstracts. Sorry. This is not an unexpected result for me. I’ll need to read it, though.

Meanwhile I will continue to smoove you with my theory of gravitational dark matter axions.

Just call me The Smoove.

I will smoove you.

I’m smoooovy.

Smoove me!

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Hall Viscosity and Drag for Effective Mass in Superfluids

by Tommy on 7/12/2016

This is a remarkably different perspective on this matter.

Transport in Superfluid Mixtures, Michael Geracie (5 December 2016)

We present a general method for constructing effective field theories for non-relativistic superfluids, generalizing the previous approaches of Greiter, Witten, and Wilczek, and Son and Wingate to the case of several superfluids in solution. We investigate transport in mixtures with broken parity and find a parity odd “Hall drag” in the presence of independent motion as well as a pinning of mass, charge, and energy to sites of nonzero relative velocity. Both effects have a simple geometric interpretation in terms of the signed volumes and directed areas of various sub-complexes of a “velocity polyhedron”: the convex hull formed by the endpoints of the velocity vectors of a superfluid mixture. We also provide a simple quasi-one-dimensional model that exhibits non-zero Hall drag.

Read it, and grok it (or at least try), even when life itself is a drag.

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Quantum Critical Point Behavior in Simple Lattice Models

by Tommy on 7/12/2016

Asymptopia is my new favorite word for the day.

Superconductivity and bad metal behavior near a nematic quantum critical point, Samuel Lederer, Yoni Schattner, Erez Berg and Steven A. Kivelson
(5 December 2016)

Using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo, we compute the properties of a lattice model with spin 1/2 itinerant electrons tuned through a quantum phase transition to an Ising nematic phase. The nematic fluctuations induce superconductivity with a broad dome in the superconducting Tc enclosing the nematic quantum critical point. For temperatures above Tc, we see strikingly non-Fermi liquid behavior including a “nodal – anti nodal dichotomy” reminiscent of that seen in several transition metal oxides and “bad metal” behavior of the conductivity.

Bad metal. Very Bad Metal!

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Topological Space Group Symmetries Catagorized

by Tommy on 6/12/2016

Gauging spatial symmetries and the classification of topological crystalline phases, Ryan Thorngren and Dominic V. Else (2 December 2016)

We put the theory of interacting topological crystalline phases on a systematic footing. These are topological phases protected by space-group symmetries. Our central tool is an elucidation of what it means to “gauge” such symmetries. We introduce the notion of a “topological crystalline liquid”, and argue that most (and perhaps all) phases of interest are likely to satisfy this criterion. We prove a Crystalline Equivalence Principle, which states that in Euclidean space, topological crystalline liquids with symmetry group G are in one-to-one correspondence with topological phases protected by the same symmetry G, but acting *internally*, where if an element of G is orientation-reversing, it is realized as an anti-unitary symmetry in the internal symmetry group. As an example, we explicitly compute, using group cohomology, a partial classification of bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases protected by crystalline symmetries in (3+1)-D for 227 of the 230 space groups. For the 65 space groups not containing orientation-reversing elements (Sohncke groups), there are no cobordism invariants which may contribute phases beyond group cohomology, and so we conjecture our classification is complete.

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Dark Matter Curvatons in a Double Cosmic Inflation Scenario

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

It took me a while to slog through this. The model is a bit ad hoc, and the math oversimplied with lots of speculative assumptions. But I must say I like the idea of a double inflation now. The only sense I can make out of all of this is that the great fall from the Planck scale to the Higgs scale is the secondary inflation, either accompanied by or followed by the reheating of the quark gluon particle plasma flux. In this case initial inflation event represents the entire Einstein mass energy equivalent of all of the gravitational field of space (time) itself, along with all of the mass energy equivalent of the dark matter and baryons contained within it. That’s a whole lotta stuff. Wow.

Curvaton as dark matter with secondary inflation, Jinn-Ouk Gong, Naoya Kitajima and Takahiro Terada, APCTP Pre2016-022, KIAS-P16084 (28 November 2016)

We consider a novel cosmological scenario in which a curvaton is long-lived and plays the role of cold dark matter (CDM) in the presence of a short, secondary inflation. Non-trivial evolution of the large scale cosmological perturbation in the curvaton scenario can affect the duration of the short term inflation, resulting in the inhomogeneous end of inflation. Non-linear parameters of the curvature perturbation are predicted to be fNL ~ 5/4 and gNL ~ 0. The curvaton abundance can be well diluted by the short-term inflation and accordingly, it does not have to decay into the Standard Model particles. Then the curvaton can account for the present CDM with the isocurvature perturbation being sufficiently suppressed because both the adiabatic and CDM isocurvature perturbations have the same origin. As an explicit example, we consider the thermal inflation scenario and a string axion as a candidate for this curvaton-dark matter. We further discuss possibilities to identify the curvaton-dark matter with the QCD axion.

I have to tell you that my mind is really completely boggled now.

So I guess it’s a big bang followed by a little bang.

Followed by a whole lotta hot non-nothing.

Cool. I like this already.

Update: Followed by the giant dark matter vacuum cleaner event.

The Cosmic Universe as Non Equilibrium Energy Conversion

The ‘Little Bounce’.

Update 2: It’s going to take a long time for the dark matter to clean up this mess.

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Chern Simons Axion Physics Coupling Theorem Explored

by Tommy on 4/12/2016

This is a nice clean presentation of axion physics in condensed matter physics systems.

Surface theorem for the Chern-Simons axion coupling, Thomas Olsen, Maryam Taherinejad, David Vanderbilt and Ivo Souza (24 November 2016)

The Chern-Simons axion coupling of a bulk insulator is only defined modulo a quantum of e2/h. The quantized part of the coupling is uniquely defined for a bounded insulating sample, but it depends on the specific surface termination. Working in a slab geometry and representing the valence bands in terms of hybrid Wannier functions, we show how to determine that quantized part from the excess Chern number of the hybrid Wannier sheets located near the surface of the slab. The procedure is illustrated for a tight-binding model consisting of coupled quantum anomalous Hall layers. By slowly modulating the model parameters, it is possible to transfer one unit of Chern number from the bottom to the top surface over the course of a cyclic evolution of the bulk Hamiltonian. When the evolution of the surface Hamiltonian is also cyclic, the Chern pumping is obstructed by chiral touchings between valence and conduction surface bands.

All your model are belong to us.

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Weyl Semimetals, Fermi Arcs and Chiral Anomalies Reviewed

by Tommy on 2/12/2016

Hasan is a leader of this field, but only because his name is recognizable.

Weyl Semimetals, Fermi Arcs and Chiral Anomalies (A Short Review), Shuang Jia, Su-Yang Xu, and M. Zahid Hasan, Nature Materials, 15, 1140-1144 (25 October 2016), DOI:10.1038/nmat4787

Physicists have discovered a novel topological semimetal, the Weyl semimetal, whose surface features a non-closed Fermi surface while the low energy quasiparticles in the bulk emerge as Weyl fermions. Here they share a brief review of the development and present perspectives on the next step forward.

So this has been fun over the last few years.

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I Guess I am Now Officially a Science and Physics Disruptor

by Tommy on 1/12/2016
Science Physics Disruptor Disrupting Disruption

Science Physics Disruptor Disrupting Disruption

Those are my new favorite words now.

This is going to be great fun.

But it won’t be pretty.

Science never is.

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The Master’s Thesis of Molly Rebecca Sexton at Oklahoma

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

This isn’t a very definitive Master’s thesis result, and it certainly isn’t PhD grade, but it is admirable that they all took the time to look into these nanodiamonds more closely. That being said, this doesn’t bode well for the Younger Dryas boundry layer sediments and sedimentary nanodiamonds, anywhere in the sedimentary record at all, so I guess I will all have to wait for more definitive results on this subject. It would be great if anyone could definitively identify and demonstrate the existence of sedimentary nanodiamonds, besides at known impact sites.

Statigraphic and Textural Analysis of Nanodiamonds Across the Younger Dryas Boundary Sediments of Western Oklahoma, Molly Rebecca Sexton, Master’s Thesis, Andrew Elwood Madden, Advisor, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma (2016)

Exposed sediment profiles of the panhandle of western Oklahoma have previously been shown to contain two peak abundances of nanodiamonds, one dated approximately to the Younger Dryas and the other from the Late Holocene. The sediments of the Bull Creek Valley contain numerous Clovis culture artifacts and megafauna remains that disappeared after the Younger Dryas Boundary Layer. Firestone et al. have proposed that the reason for this sudden disappearance is a bolide impact that broke apart in the atmosphere, scattering debris across the world (2007).

Nanodiamonds could be evidence for such an impact. In this study, I examined 12 additional samples collected at the same time as those reported by Bement et al. (2014) but not analyzed for nanodiamond content using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). These samples were collected at various locations along the same Bull Creek valley, Oklahoma, including sediments older than those analyzed by Bement et al. (2014) and an additional nearby location that crosses the Younger Dryas Boundary. No nanodiamonds were found in these samples. However, the results may not be indicative of the true nanodiamond abundance. In a further test, a grid was prepared from a sediment digest solution shown by Bement et al. (2014) to have a peak abundance of nanodiamonds. No nanodiamonds were observed in this sample, suggesting that the nanodiamonds may have a finite lifetime when preserved in an ammonium hydroxide suspension. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy was investigated and ruled out as a means of screening samples for nanodiamond content more quickly and easily. Prepared samples of sediment solution previously confirmed to have nanodiamonds showed no Raman peaks associated with diamonds, though this could also have been the result of the ammonium hydroxide suspension storage. However, samples of untreated commercial nanodiamonds also did not exhibit any characteristic diamond peaks, though possible peaks may have been obscured by heavy fluorescence.

Finally, the samples that were confirmed by Bement et al. (2014) to have nanodiamonds were divided into groups based on the ages of their sediments and highresolution (HRTEM) images of them were examined for the textures of individual grains in order to gain a better insight of how they may have formed. The textures were categorized as having no lattice fringes, partial fringes, continuous fringes, linear twins, nonlinear twins, or star twins. The nanodiamond grains in the Younger Dryas Boundary group had the lowest ratio of linear to nonlinear grains and one of the highest ratios of star twins to twins, both of which are indicative of a chemical vapor deposition formation mechanism.

This is the first study to analyze and compare nanodiamond textures from the same stratigraphic area. The differences found between the older and younger nanodiamonds suggests that further studies comparing textures across spatial and temporal boundaries could lead to more definite signatures indicative of their origins.

It’s a start, again, I guess. Hopefully she will look at it again, for her PhD.

Unless, of course, sedimentary impact nanodiamonds don’t exist.

That could very well be true, but I don’t see how.

Maybe they just all burn up in the air.

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Formal Gravitationally Induced Quantum Thermal Hall Effect

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

And here is the breakthrough. I’m cracking up. Again. Only formally now. Over.

Laughlin’s argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect, Ryota Nakai, Shinsei Ryu and Kentaro Nomura (29 November 2016)

We extend Laughlin’s magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin’s adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.

I can only suggest you give this a very careful reading.

Like I will do when I have the time.

I mean space. Or energy.

It doesn’t matter.

See also:

Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect, Ryota Nakai, Shinsei Ryu and Kentaro Nomura, New Journal of Physics, Volume 18 (10 February 2016)

A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern–Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the Strěda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory.

So quantum gravity is something like a thermal gradient.

The takeaway is that gravitons are diffusive.

This article is open access.

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Theory of Learning Subjected to Stochastic Thermodynamics

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

It’s more costly to learn from stored information than it is to store that information.

Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning, Sebastian Goldt and Udo Seifert (November 2016)

Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from that data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyse the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤ 1. We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyse Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.

Who is Udo Seifert again? Didn’t he just win a Breakthrough Prize?

Some things are difficult to forget.

It takes too much energy.

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Natural Orbital Theory for Electronic Structure Calculations

by Tommy on 30/11/2016

At first I thought this was Marvin L. Cohen, but as usual, I was wrong. It’s Morrel H. Cohen.

A well-scaling natural orbital theory, Ralph Gebauer, Morrel H. Cohen and Roberto Car, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, PNAS, 113, 46, 12913-12918 (27 November 2016), DOI:10.1073/pnas.1615729113

Computations of locations of nuclei and movement of electrons within molecules and materials are widely used in science and technology. Direct computation of a system’s wave function for that purpose becomes impractical as system size grows. Current alternative methods can have difficulty with strongly correlated electron motion or spurious electron self-interaction. By using “natural spin-orbitals” to describe the motion of individual electrons, solving for them together with their joint and individual probabilities of occurrence within the system, we are able to account better for electron correlation when strong while avoiding self-interaction and maintaining the growth of computation cost with system size at the level of Hartree–Fock theory. Our numerical results for some small test molecules are very good.

We introduce an energy functional for ground-state electronic structure calculations. Its variables are the natural spin-orbitals of singlet many-body wave functions and their joint occupation probabilities deriving from controlled approximations to the two-particle density matrix that yield algebraic scaling in general, and Hartree-Fock scaling in its seniority-zero version. Results from the latter version for small molecular systems are compared with those of highly accurate quantum-chemical computations. The energies lie above full configuration interaction calculations, close to doubly occupied configuration interaction calculations. Their accuracy is considerably greater than that obtained from current density-functional theory approximations and from current functionals of the one-particle density matrix.

Same provenance, it seems.

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Yet Another Low Frequency Microwave Cavity Axion Detector

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

That might work, or not. You gotta start somewhere. I’m leaning towards a gravitational detector.

Unless someone beats me to it. Something ultrasensive to gravitational perturbations, like LIGO.

Gravity and gravitation have consequences, even for generic sterile axionic bosons at 100 μeV.

Design and Operational Experience of a Microwave Cavity Axion Detector for the 20-100 μeV Range, S. Al Kenany, M. A. Anil, K. M. Backes, B. M. Brubaker, S. B. Cahn, G. Carosi, Y. V. Gurevich, W. F. Kindel, S. K. Lamoreaux, K. W. Lehnert, S. M. Lewis, M. Malnou, D. A. Palken, N. M. Rapidis, J. R. Root, M. Simanovskaia, T. M. Shokair, I. Urdinaran, K. A. van Bibber and L. Zhong (22 November 2016)

We describe a dark matter axion detector designed, constructed, and operated both as an innovation platform for new cavity and amplifier technologies and as a data pathfinder in the 5−25 GHz range (∼ 20 − 100 μeV). The platform is small but flexible to facilitate the development of new microwave cavity and amplifier concepts in an operational environment. The experiment has recently completed its first data production; it is the first microwave cavity axion search to deploy a Josephson parametric amplifier and a dilution refrigerator to achieve near-quantum limited performance.

All hail the probe.

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Laws of Thermodynamics Rederived from a First Principle

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

So it turns out the universe is just work storage space for a spacetime gravitational energy field.

And we’re just work storage space for the universe.

Large Deviation implies First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics, Hiroyasu Tajima, Eyuri Wakakuwa and Tomohiro Ogawa (22 November 2016)

To reconstruct thermodynamics based on the microscopic laws is one of the most important unfulfilled goals of statistical physics. Here, we show that the first law and the second law for adiabatic processes are derived from an assumption that “probability distributions of energy in Gibbs states satisfy large deviation”, which is widely accepted as a property of thermodynamic equilibrium states. We define an adiabatic transformation as a probabilistic mixture of the energy-preserving unitary transformations on the many-body systems and the work storage. As the second law, we show that an adiabatic transformation from a set of Gibbs states to another set of Gibbs states is possible if and only if the regularized von Neumann entropy becomes large. As the first law, we show that the energy loss of the thermodynamic systems during the adiabatic transformation is stored in the work storage as “work,” in the following meaning; (i) the energy of the work storage takes certain values macroscopically, in the initial state and the final state. (ii) the entropy of the work storage in the final state is macroscopically equal to the entropy of the initial state. As corollaries, our results give the maximam work principle and the first law for the isothermal processes.

This is really a fine piece of work.

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Weyl Physics in FCC Topological Nodal Superfluids Simulated

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Ok so maybe I can still slog through all this breakthroughyness.

Besides the Nature Physics pseudogap result, which got press before I even saw the ArXiv version tonight (that will require a separate post), there was the topological crystalline magnets (wouldn’t you know), and then this piece which goes with the previous Weyl semimetal work.

Weyl points and topological nodal superfluids in a face-centered cubic optical lattice, Li-Jun Lang, Shao-Liang Zhang, K. T. Law and Qi Zhou (26 November 2016)

We point out that a face-centered cubic (FCC) optical lattice, which can be realised by a simple scheme using three lasers, provides one a highly controllable platform for creating Weyl points and topological nodal superfluids in ultracold atoms. In non-interacting systems, Weyl points automatically arise in the Floquet band structure when shaking such FCC lattices, and sophisticated design of the tunnelling is not required. More interestingly, in the presence of attractive interaction between two hyperfine spin states, which experience the same shaken FCC lattice, a three-dimensional topological nodal superfluid emerges, and Weyl points show up as the gapless points in the quasiparticle spectrum. One could either create a double Weyl point of charge 2, or split it to two Weyl points of charge 1, which can be moved in the momentum space by tuning the interactions. Correspondingly, the Fermi arcs at the surface may be linked with each other or separated as individual ones.

These are all, of course, the cosmological simulations I am now looking for. That was fast.

I am now officially freaked out. Again.

I feel a song coming on …

Cool. I mean hot. No, now that I think about it, cool.

I change my mind a lot sometimes.

I’m still allowed to do that.

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Holographic Conformal Field Theory of Phonons Developed

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

So moving along it gets worse right away in a hurry, as far as more work that I now have to do.

I can’t believe how much trouble I have gotten myself into, and I only just discovered the axion.

A holographic perspective on phonons and pseudo-phonons, Andrea Amoretti, Daniel Arean, Riccardo Argurio, Daniele Musso and Leopoldo A. Pando Zayas (28 Novevember 2016)

We analyze the concomitant spontaneous breaking of translation and conformal symmetries by introducing in a CFT a complex scalar operator that acquires a spatially dependent expectation value. The model, inspired by the holographic Q-lattice, provides a privileged setup to study the emergence of phonons from a spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a conformal field theory and offers valuable hints for the treatment of phonons in QFT at large. We first analyze the Ward identity structure by means of standard QFT techniques, considering both spontaneous and explicit symmetry breaking. Next, by implementing holographic renormalization, we show that the same set of Ward identities holds in the holographic Q-lattice. Eventually, relying on the holographic and QFT results, we study the correlators realizing the symmetry breaking pattern and how they encode information about the low-energy spectrum.

See also:

Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu-Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems, Tomas Brauner, Symmetry, 2, 609-657 (7 April 2010), DOI:10.3390/sym2020609

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle, that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both, nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i) Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii) Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii) Counting rules for Nambu-Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv) Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

These are all long, comprehensive, significant, breakthroughy papers.

I especially like the latter’s handling of the screened Coulomb interaction.

There are a couple more papers tonight alone like this that I still have to read.

I have to warn you though, this is easily a couple of months work for a normal human.

Update: But since I was raised by aliens, I’m good to go. I’m unskilled and I’m aware of that.

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The Differential Topology of Weyl Semimetal Quantum Phases

by Tommy on 29/11/2016

Tuesday never lets me down on the ArXiv. Monday night.

This is something dear to my heart and I can actually read it.

Unfortunately this is really looking like at least several months work.

Differential topology of semimetals, Varghese Mathai and Guo Chuan Thiang (28 November 2016)

The subtle interplay between local and global charges for topological semimetals exactly parallels that for singular vector fields. Part of this story is the relationship between cohomological semimetal invariants, Euler structures, and ambiguities in the torsion of manifolds. Dually, semimetal invariants can be represented by Euler chains from which the surface Fermi arc connectivity can be deduced. These dual pictures, and the link to insulators, are organised using geometric exact sequences. We go beyond Dirac-type Hamiltonians and introduce new classes of semimetals whose local charges are subtle Atiyah-Dupont-Thomas invariants globally constrained by the Kervaire semicharacteristic, leading to the prediction of torsion Fermi arcs.

I like the way they talk about the decomposition of global and local charges. I can use that.

This is really good, but I haven’t read this kind of mathematics for a while.

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Early Cosmic Topology Modeled by Neutron Star Physics

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

This is as close to cosmogenesis physics as you are ever going to get.

3P2 Superfluids Are Topological, Takeshi Mizushima, Kota Masuda and Muneto Nitta (25 July 2016)

We clarify topology of 3P2 superfluids which are expected to be realized in the inner cores of neutron stars and cubic odd-parity superconductors. 3P2 phases include uniaxial/biaxial nematic phases and nonunitary ferromagnetic and cyclic phases. We here show that all the phases are accompanied by different types of topologically protected gapless fermions: Surface Majorana fermions in nematic phases and a quartet of (single) itinerant Majorana fermions in the cyclic (ferromagnetic) phase. Using the superfluid Fermi liquid theory, we also demonstrate that dihedral-two and -four biaxial nematic phases are thermodynamically favored in the weak coupling limit under a magnetic field. It is shown that the tricritical point exists on the phase boundary between these two phases and may be realized in the core of realistic magnetars. We unveil the intertwining of symmetry and topology behind mass acquisition of surface Majorana fermions in nematic phases.

But this is much closer than I thought I would ever get.

Bismuth iodide anyone?

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Theory of Electron Confinement in Superconductors Resolved

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

And of course it gets even better very quickly.

Meissner effect and a stringlike interaction, Chandrasekhar Chatterjee, Ishita Dutta Choudhury and Amitabha Lahiri (19 November 2016)

We find that a recently proposed interaction involving the vorticity current of electrons, which radiatively induces a photon mass in 3+1 dimensions in the low-energy effective theory, corresponds to confining strings (linear potential) between electrons.

Beautiful math and a beautiful result, what more can I say.

Things are really coming together.

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Non-Abelian Majorana Modes in 4D Weyl Physics Explored

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

Speaking of those Majorana monopoles, what a coincidence …

Non-Abelian Majorana modes protected by an emergent second Chern number, Cheung Chan and Xiong-Jun liu (November 2016)

The search for topological superconductors and non-Abelian Majorana modes ranks among the most fascinating topics in condensed matter physics. There now exist several fundamental superconducting phases which host symmetry protected or chiral Majorana modes. The latter, namely the chiral Majorana modes are protected by Chern numbers in even dimensions. Here we propose to observe novel chiral Majorana modes by realizing Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, i.e. the pairing density wave (PDW) phase in a Weyl semimetal which breaks time-reversal symmetry. Without symmetry protection, the 3D gapped PDW phase is topologically trivial. However, a vortex line generated in such phase can host chiral Majorana modes, which are shown to be protected by an emergent second Chern number of a synthetic 4D space generalized from the PDW phase. We further show that these chiral modes in the vortex rings obey non-Abelian loop-braiding statistics, which can be applied to topological quantum computation.

No Comments

Axion Particle Interactions at Ultra High Energies Proposed

by Tommy on 28/11/2016

Ok, tonight the very first paper on the ArXiv is breakthroughy.

On the PeV knee of cosmic rays spectrum and TeV cutoff of electron spectrum, Chao Jin, Wei Liu, Hong-Bo Hu and Yi-Qing Guo (25 November 2016)

The origin of the cosmic-ray knee has remained a puzzle since its discovery over 60 years. In addition, Some latest experiments have revealed a spectral cutoff of the electron around 1 TeV. We find these two spectral breaks have a similar Lorentz factor ∼106, and interpret this similarity with a threshold interaction induced by a new particle X abundant in the Galaxy. The interaction process CR + X ⟶ CR + X′ can take place when the effective energy is sufficient to convert it into the mass of another unknown particle X′ (as a representative to all possible threshold inelastic interactions), where the mass of X′ is 106 higher than that of the X with respect to the above mentioned common Lorentz factor. Thus cosmic rays will lose their energy above the threshold and produce a spectral break. Under this scenario, we can reproduce the spectral break for both the nuclei and electron, and predict a flattened spectrum for electrons after the cutoff. Given that there are uncertainties of experiments in determining the actual spectra of these breaks and their components, our model allows a wide mass range of the particle X from ultra low value to around 1 eV.

So there are either several bosons or their mass is excitation dependent.

It’s quite possible that they could be Majorana pairs as well.

Hey buddy, wanna buy a cheap breakthrough?

No sir, these breakthroughs aren’t hot.

I bought then at a pawn shop.

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Carnot Efficiency in Irreversible Processes Discussed

by Tommy on 27/11/2016

I’m not sure about this but I love this kind of stuff.

That’s as far as I’m willing to go until I grok it.

Carnot efficiency is attainable in an irreversible process, Jae Sung Lee and Hyunggyu Park (23 November 2016)

In thermodynamics, there exists a conventional belief that “the Carnot efficiency is reachable only when a process is reversible.” However, there is no theorem proving that the Carnot efficiency is impossible in an irreversible process. Here, we show that the Carnot efficiency is attainable in an irreversible process through investigation of the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet (FSR). Thus, this finding gives us a new possibility to develop a novel design of thermodynamic engines with high efficiency regardless of the reversibility. Our result also answers the long-standing question of whether the Carnot efficiency is possible in the FSR.

Myself, I’m just going for the 50%.

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Statistics of Non Equilibrium Fermion Systems Confirmed

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Yay for science!

Local entropy of a nonequilibrium fermion system, Charles A. Stafford and Abhay Shastry (22 November 2016)

The local entropy of a nonequilibrium system of independent fermions is investigated, and analyzed in the context of the laws of thermodynamics. It is shown that the local temperature and chemical potential can only be expressed in terms of derivatives of the local entropy for linear deviations from local equilibrium. The first law of thermodynamics is shown to lead to an inequality, not an equality, for the change in the local entropy as the nonequilibrium state of the system is changed. The maximum entropy principle (second law of thermodynamics) is proven: a nonequilibrium distribution has a local entropy less than or equal to a local equilibrium distribution satisfying the same constraints. It is shown that the local entropy of the system tends to zero when the local temperature tends to zero, consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.

Now what? Oh, yeah, the bosons.

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Out of Equilibrium Bose-Einstein Condensate Statistics

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Here is something that really caught my eye.

Uncertainty product of an out-of-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate, Shachar Klaiman, Alexej I. Streltsov and Ofir E. Alon (22 November 2016)

The variance and uncertainty product of the position and momentum many-particle operators of structureless bosons interacting by a long-range inter-particle interaction and trapped in a single-well potential are investigated. In the first example, of an out-of-equilibrium interaction-quench scenario, it is found that, despite the system being fully condensed, already when a fraction of a particle is depleted differences with respect to the mean-field quantities emerge. In the second example, of the pathway from condensation to fragmentation of the ground state, we find out that, although the cloud’s density broadens while the system’s fragments, the position variance actually decreases, the momentum variance increases, and the uncertainty product is not a monotonous function but has a maximum. Implication are briefly discussed.

Dark. Really dark.

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Simulating Dynamical Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking

by Tommy on 26/11/2016

Grok this, will ya.

Dynamical Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking and Photo-Induced Chiral Spin Liquids in Frustrated Mott Insulators, Martin Claassen, Hong-Chen Jiang, Brian Moritz and Thomas P. Devereaux, (23 November 2016)

We show that optical pumping of frustrated Mott insulators with circularly-polarized light drives an effective spin system across a phase transition and into a transient chiral spin liquid (CSL). Starting from a Kagome Hubbard model deep in the Mott phase, circular polarization promotes a scalar spin chirality Si⋅(Sj × Sk) term directly to the Hamiltonian level, dynamically breaking time-reversal while preserving SU(2) spin symmetry. We find that the transient physics is well-captured by an effective Floquet spin model, fingerprint its phase diagram, and find a stable photo-induced CSL in close proximity to the equilibrium state. The results presented suggest a new avenue of employing dynamical symmetry breaking to engineer quantum spin liquids and access elusive phase transitions that are not readily accessible in equilibrium.

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Axions are Goldstone Bosons in Horndeski Gravity Theories

by Tommy on 25/11/2016

Horndeski gravity theories are basically extended (tensor) vector scalar theories of gravity, which reduce to Einstein gravity when you eliminate the resulting Goldstone bosons via the inverse Higgs effect in these obviously non-linear mathematical representations. So in this case, quantum cosmology reduces to identifying the correct version of Horndeski gravity, in other words, where are the higher derivatives truncated, and what is the nature of the various Goldstone bosons that result from those truncations. When this non-linear phenomenon reduces to the dark matter cosmic QCD axions as gravitational bosons, in addition to the Peccie-Quinn field at high energy, there are numerous other couplings at lower energy, those that we all know and love in condensed matter physics realizations and simulations at much lower energies. Given the nearly vanishing neutron electric dipole moment, this includes, of course, the superfluidity of liquid helium, photon coupling across all energy scales, electroweak coupling at higher energies, and with gravity – gravitational scale in Minkowski and Euclidean space involving Galilean symmetries, curvature with Lorentzian symmetries, and ultimately with black holes, the topology of spacetime itself. With the standard model, we are dealing with Lie algebras and other continuous symmetries, obviously, which locally reduce to discrete space point group symmetries (algebraic symmetries). In order to make any complete sense of all of this, one must ultimately resort to mathematical representation theories. So now that I have identified the cosmic QCD axions, the next step is deriving their correct quantum field theory.

The universe is clearly scale invariant across all energy scales.

As with Einstein gravity, I want the simplest theory that works.

This can now be tested in the laboratory and observationally.

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Helium States as a Universal Cosmic Simulator Environment

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

Last night was helium night on the ArXiv. All hail the chief.

Helium atom excitations by the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body formalism, Jing Li, Markus Holzmann, Ivan Duchemin, Xavier Blase and Valerio Olevano (22 November 2016)

Helium atom is the simplest many-body electronic system provided by nature. The exact solution to the Schrödinger equation is known for helium ground and excited states, and represents a workbench for any many-body methodology. Here we check ab initio many-body GW approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) against helium exact solution. Starting from Hartree-Fock, we show that GW and BSE yield impressingly accurate results on excitation energies and oscillator strength. These findings suggest that the accuracy of BSE and GW approximations is not significantly limited by self-interaction and self-screening problems even in this few electron limit. We further discuss our results in comparison to those obtained by time-dependent density-functional theory.

So that was great fun and highly enlightening. It gets much better!

See also:

On Nambu’s Fermion-Boson Relations for Superfluid -B, J. A. Sauls and Takeshi Mizushima (22 November 2016)

Superfluid 3He is a spin-triplet (S=1), p-wave (L=1) BCS condensate of Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J=0 in the ground state. In addition to the breaking of U(1) gauge symmetry, separate spin or orbital rotation symmetry is broken to the maximal sub-group, SO(3)S×SO(3)L→SO(3)J. The Fermions acquire mass, mF≡Δ, where Δ is the BCS gap. There are also 18 Bosonic excitations – 4 Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes and 14 massive amplitude Higgs (AH) modes. The Bosonic modes are labelled by the total angular momentum, J∈{0,1,2}, and parity under particle-hole symmetry, C=±1. For each pair of angular momentum quantum numbers, J,Jz, there are two Bosonic partners with C=±1. Based this spectrum Nambu proposed a sum rule connecting the Fermion and Boson masses for BCS type theories, which for 3He-B is M2J++M2J−=4m2F for each family of Bosonic modes labelled by J, where MJC is the mass of the Bosonic mode with quantum numbers (J,C). Nambu’s sum rule (NSR) has recently been discussed in the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models for physics beyond the standard model to speculate on possible partners to the recently discovered Higgs Boson at higher energies. Here we point out that Nambu’s Fermion-Boson mass relations are not exact. Corrections to the Bosonic masses from (i) leading order strong-coupling corrections to BCS theory, and (ii) polarization of the parent Fermionic vacuum lead to violations of the sum-rule. Results for these mass corrections are given in both the T→0 and T→Tc limits. We also discuss experimental results, and theoretical analysis, for the masses of the JC=2± Higgs modes and the magnitude of the violation of the NSR.

It has become too difficult and time consuming for me to continue to cover breakthroughiness.

Especially when I am dealing with my own breakthroughy truthinesses coming fast and furious.

I’ll need an artificial quantum intelligence Tommy if I’m going to keep up with the breakthroughs.

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Excitonic Plasma Confirmed Inside the Quantum Pseudogap

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

This alternative study confirms the existence of the excitonic plasma in the pseudogap.

A Holographic Model for Pseudogap in BCS-BEC Crossover (I): Pairing Fluctuations, Double-Trace Deformation and Dynamics of Bulk Bosonic Fluid, Oliver DeWolfe, Oscar Henriksson and Chaolun Wu (21 November 2016)

We build a holographic model for the pairing fluctuation pseudogap phase in fermionic high temperature superconductivity/superfluidity based on the BCS-BEC crossover scenario. The pseudogap originates from incoherent Cooper pairing and has been observed in recent cold atom experiments. The strength of Cooper pairing and hence the BCS-BEC crossover is controlled by an effective 4-Fermi interaction and we argue that the double-trace deformation for charged scalar operator is a close analog in large N field theories. We employ the double-trace deformed Abelian Higgs model of holographic superconductors and propose that the incoherent fluctuations of the charged scalar in the bulk is the holographic dual of the fluctuating Cooper pairs. Using a Madelung transformation and the velocity-potential formalism, we develop a quantum fluid dynamics as an effective theory for these bulk fluctuations. The new fluid dynamics takes care of the boundary conditions required by AdS/CFT and encodes the vacuum polarization effect in curved spacetime. The pseudogap in conductivity can be related to the plasma oscillation of this bulk fluid.

This paper is deeply revealing and directly applicable to quantum cosmology.

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Curvatronics in Bilayer Graphene as a 4D Spacetime

by Tommy on 23/11/2016

This is another one that I just have to more or less regurgitate verbatim. Enjoy!

Curvatronics with bilayer graphene in an effective 4D spacetime, M. Cariglia, R. Giambò and A. Perali (17 Novenber 2016)

We show that in AB stacked bilayer graphene low energy excitations around the semimetallic points are described by massless, four dimensional Dirac fermions. There is an effective reconstruction of the 4 dimensional spacetime, including in particular the dimension perpendicular to the sheet, that arises dynamically from the physical graphene sheet and the interactions experienced by the carriers. The effective spacetime is the Eisenhart-Duval lift of the dynamics experienced by Galilei invariant Levy-Leblond spin 1/2 particles near the Dirac points. We find that changing the intrinsic curvature of the bilayer sheet induces a change in the energy level of the electronic bands, switching from a conducting regime for negative curvature to an insulating one when curvature is positive. In particular, curving graphene bilayers allows opening or closing the energy gap between conduction and valence bands, a key effect for electronic devices. Thus using curvature as a tunable parameter opens the way for the beginning of curvatronics in bilayer graphene.


See also:

Spatially-indirect Exciton Condensate Phases in Double Bilayer Graphene, Jung-Jung Su and Allan H. MacDonald (19 November 2016)

We present a theory of spatially indirect exciton condensate states in systems composed of a pair of electrically isolated Bernal graphene bilayers. The ground state phase diagram in a two-dimensional displacement-field/inter-bilayer-bias space includes layer-polarized semiconductors, spin-density-wave states, exciton condensates, and states with mixed excitonic and spin order. We find that two different condensate states, distinguished by a chirality index, are stable under different electrical control conditions.

Super interesting stuff.

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Dark Matter Initiated Faint Dwarf Galaxy Satellite Discovered

by Tommy on 22/11/2016
Faint Dark Matter Induced Satellite Galaxy Blob Virgo 1

Faint Dark Matter Induced Satellite Galaxy Blob Virgo 1

A New Milky Way Satellite Discovered In The Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey, Daisuke Homma, Masashi Chiba, Sakurako Okamoto, Yutaka Komiyama, Masayuki Tanaka, Mikito Tanaka, Miho N. Ishigaki, Masayuki Akiyama, Nobuo Arimoto, Jose A. Garmilla, Robert H. Lupton, Michael A. Strauss, Hisanori Furusawa, Satoshi Miyazaki, Hitoshi Murayama, Atsushi J. Nishizawa, Masahiro Takada, Tomonori Usuda and Shiang-Yu Wang, The Astrophysical Journal, 832, 1 (14 November 2016)

We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint dwarf satellite companion of the Milky Way based on the early survey data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program. This new satellite, Virgo I, which is located in the constellation of Virgo, has been identified as a statistically significant (5.5 sigma) spatial overdensity of star-like objects with a well-defined main sequence and red giant branch in their color-magnitude diagram. The significance of this overdensity increases to 10.8 sigma when the relevant isochrone filter is adopted for the search. Based on the distribution of the stars around the likely main sequence turn-off at r ~ 24 mag, the distance to Virgo I is estimated as 87 kpc, and its most likely absolute magnitude calculated from a Monte Carlo analysis is MV = -0.8 +/- 0.9 mag. This stellar system has an extended spatial distribution with a half-light radius of 38 +12/-11 pc, which clearly distinguishes it from a globular cluster with comparable luminosity. Thus, Virgo I is one of the faintest dwarf satellites known and is located beyond the reach of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This demonstrates the power of this survey program to identify very faint dwarf satellites. This discovery of Virgo I is based only on about 100 square degrees of data, thus a large number of faint dwarf satellites are likely to exist in the outer halo of the Milky Way.

It seems like there are lots of irregular clouds of diffuse dark matter swishing around out there.

The question is, what happens when it gets close to dense high energy objects.

I have some very specific mathematically precise ideas on that subject.

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Comprehensive Microscopic SU(2) Theory of the Pseudogap

by Tommy on 22/11/2016

Excitons. Who would have guessed.

Effective SU(2) theory for the pseudo-gap state, X. Montiel, T. Kloss and C.Pépin (20 November 2016)

This paper exposes in a detailed manner the recent findings about the SU(2) scenario for the underdoped phase of the Cuprate superconductors. The SU(2) symmetry is formulated as a rotation between the d-wave SC phase and a d-wave charge order. After defining the operators responsible the rotations, we derive the non linear σ-model associated to it and show that SU(2) fluctuations are massless in finite portions of the Brillouin Zone corresponding to the anti-nodal regions (0,π), (π,0). We argue that the presence of SU(2) fluctuations in the anti-nodal region leads to the opening of Fermi arcs around the Fermi surface and to the formation of the pseudo-gap. SU(2) fluctuations lead, in turn, to the emergence of a finite momentum SC order, or Pair Density Wave (PDW) and more importantly to a new kind of excitonic liquid, the Resonant Excitonic State (RES), which is made of patches of preformed particle-hole pairs with multiple momenta. When the RES liquid becomes critical, electronic scattering through the critical modes leads to anomalous transport properties which can account for the Strange Metal (SM) phase at finite temperature, on the right hand side of the SC dome, shedding light on another notoriously mysterious part of the phase diagram of the Cuprates.

This idea is much more believable now after the third or fourth pass through.

It took me very little time to read this paper.

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Axion Mass By Resonant Josephson Junction Decay

by Tommy on 22/11/2016

I thought I had better review this now that the axion mass is better refined.

I have no problem with the axion mass being less than the cosmic microwave background.

The math is considerably simpler to understand by not delving into too many of the details.

Axion mass estimates from resonant Josephson junctions, Christian Beck, Physics of the Dark Universe, 7–8, 6–11 (June 2015), 10.1016/j.dark.2015.03.002

Recently it has been proposed that dark matter axions from the galactic halo can produce a small Shapiro step-like signal in Josephson junctions whose Josephson frequency resonates with the axion mass (Beck, 2013). Here we show that the axion field equations in a voltage-driven Josephson junction environment allow for a nontrivial solution where the axion-induced electrical current manifests itself as an oscillating supercurrent. The linear change of phase associated with this nontrivial solution implies the formal existence of a large magnetic field in a tiny surface area of the weak link region of the junction which makes incoming axions decay into microwave photons. We derive a condition for the design of Josephson junction experiments so that they can act as optimum axion detectors. Four independent recent experiments are discussed in this context. The observed Shapiro step anomalies of all four experiments consistently point towards an axion mass of (110 ± 2) μeV. This mass value is compatible with the recent BICEP2 results and implies that Peccei–Quinn symmetry breaking was taking place after inflation.

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The Cosmic Universe as Non Equilibrium Energy Conversion

by Tommy on 21/11/2016
Cosmological Eras

Cosmological Eras

From a highly excited low entropy state.

I get the idea as I progress that string theorists are not working from first principles.

I look at the universe as I look at the origin of life, and I come to view this as a complete outsider from a perspective of condensed matter physics. This has given me a unique and singular perspective, but sooner or later I have to get down to the nitty gritty of crackpot modeling. I look at this thinking – ‘can this be as simple as axion-Higgs physics in an excited gravitational field?’

With the origin of terrestrial biological life, we have a clear electromagnetic potential and the reduction of carbon dioxide in radioactively produced underwater alkaline hydrothermal vents, cascading energy dissipation through many electron volts through many dissipation processes down to ambient temperatures. Life as an energy dissipation process eventually transitioned to optical irradiation and photoconversion, transpiration and respiration, but the energy gradient magnitudes are similar. What we are confronted with the cosmos, is the Planck scale energy gradient falling nearly instantaneously down to the Higgs scale vacuum expectation value of 246 GeV. What we are finding now is that everything above that energy level, with the exception of a few stray cosmic rays and neutrinos, is a totally barren empty desert up to the Planck scale.

So the question is, are the QCD axions, which are guaranteed to exist, gravitationally coupled in some way, or are they simple ‘sterile’ Peccei-Quinn QCD axions? The so called axion decay constant, fa, is estimated to be half way to the Planck scale in Minkowski space. So my idea is that fa depends upon gravitational curvature, where a very small highly curved spacetime with standard model particles would be more strongly coupled. So my modelling assumes that axion production, as a result of the breaking of time reversal symmetry, occurs concurrently with standard model particle production by C, P and T in baryogenesis, and where the vast magnitude of the Planck scale energy potential drives the cosmic axion angle to a nearly infinitesimal value in ‘inflation’, instantly decaying into cosmic spacetime, cosmic QCD axions, and ultimately, a hot, expanding, standard model quark qluon plasma, slowly cooling itself off.

The result of decomposition of spacetime topological central charge into composite structures.

Here it is in case you need to refresh your memory.

So how does this proceed. Where does the energy go? Very mysterious.

Imagine a universe where the dark matter coupling ends up dragging all the baryons down a black hole someplace, and all the black holes eventually coalesce, and you end up with what you started, an evaporating singularity sitting by itself in empty space. Spacetime itself becomes meaningless no matter how big or old it is. The photons just get recycled. It does not exist.

Inside that singularity are a godzillion black holes merged together at some point in a time reversal invariant BCS-BEC topological superfluid with an arbitrary temperature, since it can no longer evaporate. In this case, the Planck scale. In other words, a potential Higgs field potential.

Now energize that field by a quantum fluctuation and allow that energy to relax back into some spacetime. A vast amount of the energy goes into the construction of the spacetime field itself, The cosmic QCD axions record the topology of the cosmogenesis event, and the standard model particles condense out as the process renews itself. The is the ‘little bounce’ model.

You heard it here first.

So religionists rejoice! It’s ALIVE!

The question is how much information can the universe pack into dark matter axions.

This is quantum mechanics, there is going to be great variation in particle production too.

It turns out our little bounce was a pretty big bang.

And here we are! In the cosmos.

My universe – in a nut shell.

Update 1:

Gravitational Axions as Dark Matter

Update 2:

Gravitational Axions in Quantum Gravity and Cosmology

© 2017 Thomas Lee Elifritz

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Lonsdaleite and Impact Nanodiamond Polymorph Structures

by Tommy on 20/11/2016

This subject is still controversial but understanding is now progressing.

This work exemplifies the value of a failed cosmic impact hypothesis.

Structures of meteoritic diamond nanocrystals, P. Nemeth, L. A. J. Garvie and P. R. Buseck, 30th European Crystallographic Meeting, 28th August – 1st September 2016, Congress Center Basel, Switzerland. MS18-04, Acta Cryst A., A72, s71 (2 September 2016)

Meteoritic diamond nanocrystals can provide information on stellar nucleosynthesis as well as shock processes occurring during cosmic and terrestrial impacts. According to published data, these crystals are structurally inhomogeneous and consist of ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m) plus a variety of sp3-bonded diamond polymorphs including h- (lonsdaleite), i-, m-, and n-diamond. These structures have received considerable attention because they are thought to indicate diagnostic formation conditions. In particular, the polymorphs have been widely used as indicators of asteroidal impacts and linked to mass extinctions such as the dinosaurs and mammoths. However, pure crystals, even tiny ones, of the polymorphs have never been reported. Furthermore, the diagnostic features of the polymorphs have been controversial, which posed serious problems with their identifications. In order to elucidate the structures of diamond nanocrystals, and thus to approach the issue of diamond polymorphs, we studied samples from the Canyon Diablo, Gujba, Murchison, and Orgueil meteorites as well as from the Popagai crater using an ultrahigh-resolution transmission electron microscope (uHRTEM). We found that diamond nanocrystals are intimately twinned and faulted. Combinations of {113} and {111} twins as well as {111} stacking faults produce uHRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from crystal-thickness effects. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported diamond polymorphs are all actually c-diamond containing intimate twins and stacking faults. This finding calls for reevaluation of implications regarding impact origins based on nanosized diamond polymorphs. The results also imply that defects are widespread in diamond nanocrystals, and these defects can give rise to a surprisingly diverse nanometer-scale structural complexity.

See also:

Structural characterization of natural diamond shocked to 60 GPa; implications for Earth and planetary systems, Adrian P. Jones, Paul F. McMillan, Christoph G. Salzmann, Matteo Alvaro, Fabrizio Nestola, Mauro Prencipe, David Dobson, Rachael Hazael and Moreton Moore, Lithos (30 September 2016), DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2016.09.023

The possible presence of the high-density carbon polymorph with hexagonal symmetry known as “lonsdaleite” provides an important marker for shock impact events. It is typically considered to form as a metastable phase produced from graphite or other carbonaceous precursors. However, its existence has recently been called into question. Here we collected high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction data for laboratory-shocked and natural impact diamonds that both show evidence for deviations from cubic symmetry, that would be consistent with the appearance of hexagonal stacking sequences. These results show that hexagonality can be achieved by shocking diamond as well as from graphite precursors. The diffraction results are analyzed in terms of a general model that describes intermediate stacking sequences between pure diamond (fully cubic) and “lonsdaleite” (fully hexagonal) phases, with provision made for ordered vs disordered stacking arrangements. This approach provides a “hexagonality index” that can be used to characterize and distinguish among samples that have experienced different degrees of shock or static high pressure-high temperature treatments. We have also examined the relative energetics of diamond and “lonsdaleite” structures using density functional theoretical (DFT) methods. The results set limits on the conditions under which a transformation between diamond and “lonsdaleite” structures can be achieved. Calculated Raman spectra provide an indicator for the presence of extended hexagonal stacking sequences within natural and laboratory-prepared samples. Our results show that comparable crystallographic structures may be developed by impact-generated shockwaves starting from ambient conditions using either of the two different allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite). This broadens the scope for its occurrence in terrestrial and planetary systems.

They have kind of overdone the lonsdaleite quoting here.

So lets all invite londsdaleite back into the “club”.

See also also also

Graphite-to-diamond (13C) direct transition in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell, Elizaveta Tyukalova, Boris Kulnitskiy, Igor Perezhogin, Alexey Kirichenko and Vladimir Blank, The 16th European Microscopy Congress 2016, Lyon, France, International Journal of Nanotechnology, 13, 8-9, DOI:10.1002/9783527808465.EMC2016.6073

13C-graphite treated in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell was studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It was found that 13C-diamond and lonsdaleite originate after the treatment under high pressure and shear deformation.

That’s gotta hurt.

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